正规彩票软件2020

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理论调研
 
破产债权人程序自治概论
论行政行为的成熟性标准
“明股实债”模式下的股东资格...
次位的违约救济——请求给付发...
认罪认罚从宽制度中律师作用的...
不动产让与担保的实践与思考
房地产开发企业破产中的购房人...
在限制与保护之间——同人作品...
 
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浙江省物价局 浙江省司法厅关...
浙江省高级人民法院印发《关于...
浙江省高级人民法院 浙江省人...
浙江省高级人民法院 人民检察...
关于公职律师岗前培训工作有关...
关于印发《浙江省公职律师管理...
正规彩票软件2020证券法律业务执业规...
正规彩票软件2020名称管理办法
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鐞嗚璋冪爺
破产债权人程序自治概论
发表时间: 2019-10-15 发布者: Admin 点击率: 1172

ZHEJIANGYONGDA(SHAOXING)ZHENGGUICAIPIAORUANJIAN2020    LOUQIMING  YANGYUXIN

    NEIRONGTIYAO: POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIZUOWEIBENWENTICHUDEYIGEQUANXINLINIAN,ZAIPOCHANFALINGYUJIAOZHAIQUANRENZIZHIJUYOUZHEGENGSHENDENEIHANHEFANCHOU。BENWENCONGFENXIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEJIBENNEIHANRUSHOU,JIANGQIYUZHAIQUANRENZIZHIJINXINGLEBIJIAO,BINGXITONGFENXILEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZUOWEICHENGXUZIZHIZHUTIDEBIYAOXING。ZAICIJICHUZHISHANG,BENWENYOUFENXILEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIKEYIBAOZHENGPOCHANFAPINGDENGBAOHUGELEIXINGQIYE、BAOZHENGPOCHANANJIANSHENLIDEGONGZHENGYUGAOXIAOYIJITIGONGDUOYUANJIUJIQUDAODESANGEJIBENGONGNENG;YIJIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIZHIXIAPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGYIXIANGDUIDULIDEDIWEIXIANGYOUZHUDAOQUAN、GUANGFANDEJUECEQUAN、ZIYOUXIESHANGQUANZHEIYIBIAOXIAN。

    GUANJIANCI: CHENGXUZIZHI  POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHI  ZHONGZHENG  ZIZHUQUAN  SHENPANQUAN

    YI、POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEJIBENNEIHAN

   (YI)CHENGXUZIZHIZHIJIBENFALI

    SUOWEICHENGXUZIZHI,ZAIZHULIUGUANDIANZHONGZHUYAOBAOKUOLELIANGZHONGJIESHI。YIZHONGGUANDIANRENWEICHENGXUZIZHISHIZHI“PANJUEZHINENGTONGGUOFAYUANDESHENLIHUODONGERCHANSHENG,FATINGDESHENLIHUODONGZAICAIPANCHANSHENGGUOCHENGZHONGQIZHEWEIYIDEJUEDINGXINGDEZUOYONG。”[1]CONGZHEIYIGAINIANCHANSHUFENXI,KEYIDECHUCHENGXUZIZHIZHISHAOBAOHANLEYIXIASANGEFANGMIANDENEIRONG: SHOUXIAN,PANJUEDEYIJUZHINENGQUJUEYUFAYUANDESHENLIHUODONG,FAGUANNAISHIJIYUSHENLIHUODONGDEQUANBUQINGKUANGERZUOCHUZUIZHONGDELIXINGPANDUAN。QICI,FAGUANZUOCHUPANJUEXUYAOPAICHUQIZISHENSHENLIHUODONGYIWAIDEGEZHONGYINSUDEGANRAO。ZUIHOU,FAGUANZUOCHULIXINGPANDUANDEGUOCHENGXUSHILAIZIYUFAGUANDULIDESIKAOHEXINZHENG,FAGUANYOUZHIQUANYEYOUZHIZEDULIDIXINGSHICAIPANQUANLI。ERCONGZHEISANGEFANGMIANDENEIRONGKEYIKANCHU,ZHEIZHONGGUANDIANDUICHENGXUZIZHIDELIJIESHIYIFAYUANHEFAGUANWEIHEXINDE,YEJIZHENGGECHENGXUZIZHIDEZHANKAIZHUYAOYILAIYUFAYUANDESHENLIHUODONGHEFAGUANXINGCHENGCAIPANJIEGUODELIXINGPANDUAN。

    ERLINGYIZHONGDUICHENGXUZIZHIGAINIANDEJIEDUQUEYUQIANYIZHONGSHUOFADAXIANGJINGTING。ZHEIZHONGGUANDIANRENWEI,SUOWEICHENGXUZIZHI,SHIZHI“YIZHONGFALVCHENGXUYUQIWAIJIEHUANJINGXIANGDUIGELIDEZHUANGTAI,ZAIZHEIZHONGZHUANGTAIXIA,CHENGXUZISHENDEZHANKAIGUOCHENGTONGSHIYESHICHENGXUGONGNENGDESHIXIANGUOCHENG。”[2]ZAIZHEIZHONGGUANDIANZHIXIA,CHENGXUZIZHISHIFALVZIZHIDEHEXINHESHIXIANSHOUDUAN。DANSHIYUQIANYIZHONGGUANDIANBUTONG,ZAIZHEIYIDUICHENGXUZIZHINEIHANDEFENXIZHONG,XUEZHEBINGQILEJIANGFAYUANZUOWEIZIZHIHEXINZHUTIDERENSHI,QIANGDIAOLEZAISIFACHENGXUZHONGJIAOSEDEFENHUAYUZHONGZU。

    SHIJISHANG,DUIYUCHENGXUZIZHIGAINIANDELIJIE,ZHUYAOHAISHIQUJUEYUDUISHENPANMOSHIDEXUANZE。ZAIZHIQUANZHUYIMOSHIZHIXIA,FAYUANZAISHENPANGUOCHENGZHONGYONGYOUZHEJIAOQIANGDEQUANLIHEZHUDAODEDIWEI,BINGQIETUIDONGZHESUSONGCHENGXUDEBUDUANYUNXING,YINCIQIANSHUDIYIZHONGYIFAYUANHEFAGUANWEIHEXINHUOZHUDAODEDINGYIHUOXUGENGWEITIEQIE。DANSHI,ZAIGEGUOCHENGXUFADOUYIJINGHUOQINGXIANGYUJIANGDANGSHIRENZHUYI(MOSHI)ZUOWEISUSONGSHENPANMOSHIDEJINTIAN,CHENGXUZIZHIDEGAINIANYIYINGDANGGENGJIAQINGXIANGYUSHENPANHUODONGZHONGGEGEJIAOSEDEFENHUAYUZHONGZU。

    JIYUCHENGXUZIZHIGUOCHENGZHONGGEGEJIAOSEZHIFENHUAYUZHONGZUDETEDIAN,DANGSHIRENZUOWEICHENGXUKAIQI、TUIJIN、ZHONGZHIHEZHONGJIEDEZHUTI,YEBIRANSHICHENGXUZIZHIZHONGDEHEXINZHUTIZHIYI。ZUOWEICHENGXUZIZHIDEZHONGYAOJIAOSE,DANGSHIRENZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIANYOUZHEJUZUQINGZHONGDEZUOYONG: SHOUXIAN,DANGSHIRENJUEDINGZHESUSONGCHENGXUSHIFOUKAIQI,FAYUANZUOWEIJUZHONGSHENPANDEZUZHIZHISHI“BEIDONGDI”JUEDINGSHIFOUJIESHOUDANGSHIRENDESHENQING。QICI,DANGSHIRENDUICHENGXUYOUYIDINGDEXUANZEQUAN。DANGRAN,ZHEIZHONGDUICHENGXUDEXUANZEJIUJINGSHIDUICHENGXUGUIZEDEXUANZEHAISHIDUIJIUFENJIEJUEFANGSHIDEXUANZESHANGCUNYOUYIDINGDEZHENGYI,DANZHISHAODANGSHIRENDUICHENGXUDEXUANZEQUANSHICUNZAIDE。[3]ZUIHOU,ZAICHENGXUTUIJINGUOCHENGZHONG,JIYUDANGSHIRENDECHUFENQUAN,CHENGXUDEZHONGJIEFANGSHI、CAIPANZHONGDESHISHIRENDINGHEPANJUEJIEGUOJUNSHOUDAOLEBUTONGCHENGDUDEYINGXIANG。YINCI,RUGUOJIANGCHENGXUZIZHIYIJUJIAOSEDEFENHUAERJINXINGXIHUA,NEIMEYEJIUKEYIDECHUDANGSHIRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEGAINIAN。

    DANGSHIRENCHENGXUZIZHI,SHICHENGXUZIZHIJIAOSEFENHUASHIJIAOXIADEGAINIAN,TASHIZHIDANGSHIRENZUOWEICHENGXUZIZHIDEZHUYAOCANYUZHE,ZAICHENGXUDEZHANKAIHECHENGXUGONGNENGDESHIXIANGUOCHENGZHONG,GENJUQIZISHENYISIERFAHUIXIANGYINGDENENGDONGZUOYONG,BINGJINERDUICHENGXUDEJIEGUOCHANSHENGSHIZHIDEYINGXIANG。DANGSHIRENCHENGXUZIZHI,SHIDUIDANGSHIRENZHUIQIUGONGZHENGCAIPANJIEGUODEYIZHONGCHENGXUBAOZHANG。JIYUDANGSHIRENCHENGXUZIZHI,DANGSHIRENBUZAIYIWEIDIJIANGXIWANGBEIDONGDIJITUOYUZUOWEICAIPANJIGOUDEFAYUANSHENSHANG,FANZHI,TONGGUOFAHUIZISHENDENENGDONGZUOYONG,DANGSHIRENBUDANKEYIZHIYUEFAYUANCAIPANQUANDEXINGSHI,TONGSHIHAINENGFENHUAFAYUANZAISHENPANGUOCHENGZHONGDEZUOYONG,JIESHENGSIFAZIYUAN。ERZAIBIZHEKANLAI,CHULEYISHANGLIANGGEGONGRENDEYIYIZHIWAI,DANGSHIRENCHENGXUZIZHIHAIYOUYIGEGENGJIAZHONGYAODEZUOYONG,NEIJIUSHIDANGSHIRENCHENGXUZIZHINENGGOUSHIFAYUANDECAIPANHUODONGGENGJIAFUHESHICHANGHUA、JINGJIHUADEYAOQIU,ERZHEIYIDIAN,ZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGXIANDEYOUWEIZHONGYAO。

    (ER)POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEGAINIANHETEZHENG

    JIEHEQIANMIANDUIDANGSHIRENCHENGXUZIZHIGAINIANDEBIAOSHU,BIZHERENWEI,SUOWEIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHI,SHIZHIZAIZUOWEIGUANGYIDEMINSHISUSONGCHENGXUZHIYIDEPOCHANCHENGXUZHONG,ZHAIQUANRENZUOWEIPOCHANANJIANDEGENBENLIYIZHUTIHEZHUYAOBAOHUDUIXIANG,DUIPOCHANCHENGXUDEZHANKAIHEPOCHANCHENGXUGONGNENGDESHIXIAN,QIKEGENJUZISHENDEYISIBIAOSHIERFAHUINENGDONGZUOYONG,BINGJINERDUIPOCHANJIEGUOCHANSHENGYOULIYUJIDESHIZHIYINGXIANG。

    CONGCHENGXUZIZHIDEZHUTILAIKAN,ZHAIQUANRENSHIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEWEIYIZIZHIZHUTI,ZHAIWURENBINGBUXIANGYOUZIZHIQUAN。MINSHISUSONGANJIANJIANGQIULIANGZAODUILI,GUWULUNSHIYUANGAOHAISHIBEIGAO,JUNZAISUSONGGUOCHENGZHONGXIANGYOUCHENGXUZIZHIQUANLI。KEYISHUO,SHIDUILIDESHUANGFANGDANGSHIRENGEZIDESUSONGFALVXINGWEI,GONGTONGYINGXIANGLEMINSHISUSONGCHENGXUDETUIJINHECAIPANDEJIEGUO。RANER,YUXIAYIDEMINSHISUSONGCHENGXUBUTONG,WULUNSHIPOCHANCHENGXUHAISHIQIANGZHIZHIXINGCHENGXU,ZHAIQUANRENYUZHAIWURENZAIDIWEISHANGBINGBUSHIPINGDENGDE,ZHAIQUANRENSUIBUNENGSHUOLINGJIAYUZHAIWURENZHISHANG,DANBAOHUZHAIQUANRENDELIYINAISHICHENGXUDEBENZHIYUHEXIN。YINCI,ZUOWEIZHAIWUREN,SUIRANYEHUODUOHUOSHAODIHUODELEYIDINGDECHENGXUQUANLIHECHENGXUBAOZHANG,DANZHEIYANGDEBAOZHANGHAIYUANWEIDADAOZIZHIDEBIAOZHUN。

    CONGCHENGXUZIZHIDEZUOYONGLAIKAN,ZHAIQUANRENZUOWEIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEWEIYIZIZHIZHUTI,QICHENGXUZIZHIQUANWUYIGOUCHENGLEDUIFAYUANSHENPANQUANDEYOUXIAOZHIYUE。ZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONG,FAYUANDEGONGNENGYUSUSONGANJIANXIANGBISHIQUANMIANRUOHUADE。ZHAIQUANRENHUIYIHEPOCHANGUANLIRENQUDAILEPUTONGSUSONGANJIANZHONGFAYUANDEJUEDADUOSHUGONGNENG,ZAIPOCHANANJIANSHOULIZHIHOUQUANMIANJIEGUANLEPOCHANSHIWU,ERFAYUANGENGDUODIZHISHIQIDAOJUZHONGXIEDIAO、CAIJUEZHENGYIHESHENCHAJIANDUDEZUOYONG。YINCI,ZHAIQUANRENDEZIZHIQUANQUANMIANZHIYUELEFAYUANDESHENPANQUAN,SHIDEFAYUANZHINENGZAICHENGXUKAIQIHECHENGXUTUIJINGUOCHENGZHONGBEIDONGDIBINGQIEGENGDUODISHIZAIMINGYISHANG“FAHAOSHILING”。

    CONGCHENGXUZIZHIDESHIXIANGUOCHENGLAIKAN,ZHAIQUANRENLIYIDESHIXIANGENGDUODIYAOYILAIZHAIQUANRENZISHENDENENGDONGZUOYONG,QICHENGDUYUANCHAOMINSHISUSONGANJIAN。ZAIMINSHISUSONGANJIANZHONG,DANGSHIRENDESUSONGFALVXINGWEIBUDANZUOYONGYOUXIAN,ERQIEDABUFENXUYAOYILAIFAYUANDESHENLIHUODONGCAINENGCHANSHENGXIAOLI。ERZAIPOCHANANJIANZHONG,ZHAIQUANRENDEJUEDADUOSHUCHUFENXINGWEIBINGBUXUYAOJIEZHUYUFAYUANDUIQISHENPANQUANDEXINGSHI: YOUQUANTIZHAIQUANRENZUCHENGDEZHAIQUANRENHUIYIXIANGDANGYUGONGSIDEGUDONGHUI,SHIPOCHANSHIWUDEJUECEJIGUAN;YOUZHAIQUANRENDAIBIAOZUCHENGDEZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIZEXIANGDANGYUGONGSIDEJIANSHIHUI,SHIPOCHANSHIWUCHULIGUOCHENGZHONGDEJIANDUJIGUAN,QIZHEZHAIQUANRENZIWOBAOHUDEZUOYONG;SHOUQUANTIZHAIQUANRENJIANDU,DUIQUANTIZHAIQUANRENFUZEDEPOCHANGUANLIREN,ZEXIANGDANGYUGONGSIGUDONGHUIPINQINGDEZHIXINGDONGSHIHEZONGJINGLI,SHIJIFUZEPOCHANSHIWUDEZHIXINGGONGZUO。

    XUYAOTEBIEJIAYISHUOMINGDESHI,YIZHIYILAI,ZAIPOCHANFALILUNJIEJUNMEIYOUZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDESHUOFA,GENGDUODESHICAIQULEZHAIQUANRENZIZHIDESHUOFA。ZHAIQUANRENZIZHIZAIPOCHANFALILUNJIEBEIGUANGFANDIRENWEISHIPOCHANFADEYIXIANGJIBENYUANZE,TABEIJIEDINGWEI “QUANTIZHAIQUANRENZUCHENGZHAIQUANRENHUIYIHUOXUANRENQIDAIBIAO,DUIPOCHANCHENGXUJINXINGZHONGDEYOUGUANZHONGDASHIXIANG,FABIAOYIJIANBINGZUOCHUJUEDING,BINGJIANDUGUANLIRENZHENGDANGLVXINGQIZHIZE。”[4]POCHANFALILUNJIEDUIZHAIQUANRENZIZHIDEMINGQUEDINGYIBINGBUDUOJIAN,DANJIANGZHAIQUANRENZIZHIQUELIWEIPOCHANFADEYIXIANGJIBENYUANZEDEGUANDIANHAISHIBIJIAOPUBIANDE。[5]BIZHERENWEI,ZHAIQUANRENZIZHIYUZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIBUJINSHIZAIWENZIBIAOSHUSHANGCUNZAIZHECHAYI,ZAIQINEIRONGHESHIZHISHANGYECUNZAIBENZHIDEQUBIE:

   (1)ZHAIQUANRENZIZHIXIANGJIAOYUZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHI,QIZUOYONGDEFANWEIYUANXIAOYUZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHI。[6]CONGJIYOUDEYANJIULAIKAN,ZHAIQUANRENHUIYIZHIDUBEIRENWEISHIZHAIQUANRENZIZHIYUANZEDEGUIZETIXIAN,QIJINSUOYOUDUIZHAIQUANRENZIZHIYUANZEDESHENHUATANTAO,YEDOUSHIWEIRAORUHESHEZHIZHAIQUANRENHUIYIZHIDULAIZHANKAIDE。ZHEIYANGYILAI,ZHAIQUANRENZIZHIJIUBIANCHENGLEZHAIQUANRENJIYUZHAIQUANRENHUIYIERDUIPOCHANSHITIXINGSHIXIANGJINXINGCHUFEN。DANSHI,POCHANANJIANDEHEXINBINGBUSHIPOCHANSHITIXINGSHIXIANG,POCHANCHENGXUCONGKAIQI、TUIJINDAOJIESHUDEMEIYIGEHUANJIE,DOUYINGDANGJINRUNZHAIQUANRENDEZIZHUXUANZEHEZHUGUANNENGDONG,ZHEIYESHIZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEMUBIAOHEZUOYONG。

   (2)ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHISHIZHAIQUANRENHUODELEGENGDADEZIZHUQUANLI。ZHAIQUANRENHUIYIDEZUCHENGSHIZAIPOCHANANJIANSHOULIZHIHOU,ERQIGONGNENGYEZHISHIDUIPOCHANZHONGDASHIXIANGZUOCHUJUECE。ZHEIYANGYILAI,ZHAIQUANRENDEZIZHUXINGQUANLIYEJIUJINXIANYUDUIZHONGDASHIXIANGDEJIANYIQUANHEBIAOJUEQUANLE。DANSHISHISHANG,DADAOPOCHANCHENGXUDEKAIQI、POCHANCHENGXUDEXUANZE、ZHONGZHENGFANGANDEBIAOJUEYIJIDUIZHAIWURENCAICHANDECHUZHI,XISUIDAOPOCHANGUANLIRENDEXUANREN、ZHONGZHENGQIYEDEGUANLI、ZHAIWURENCAICHANDECHAMINGYIJIZHAIWURENHUIJIZHANGCEHECAIWUBAOBIAODESHENJIDENGSHIXIANG,ZHAIQUANRENJUNKEYITONGGUOGEZHONGFANGSHITIXIANQIZIZHUXING。ERZHEIQISHIYESHIZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIZAIGUIZESHANGDETIXIAN。

   (3)ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIJIEZHUYUPOCHANCHENGXU,JIANGQIYUWAIJIEXIANGGELI,SHIZHAIQUANRENDESHITIXINGQUANLIHUODELECHENGXUBAOZHANG。CHENGXUZIZHIDEZUOYONGSHIJIEZHUCHENGXUJIANGANJIANYUWAIJIEXIANGGELI,BINGSHIDANGSHIRENSHITIQUANLIDESHIXIANHUODEZUGOUDECHENGXUBAOZHANG。ERZHAIQUANRENZIZHIDUICHENGXUBAOZHANGZEWUGUODUOYAOQIU,YINCIZHAIQUANRENSUOWEIDEZIZHIRENGYOUKENENGSHOUDAOWAIJIEDEGEZHONGGANRAO,ZHEIYIDIANZAIWOGUOPOCHANSIFASHIJIANZHONGXIANDEYOUQITUCHU。WOGUOPOCHANANJIANDECHULIYIZHIYILAIDOUBAOSHOUXINGZHENGGANYU,ZHAIQUANRENYOUYUWUFAHUODECHENGXUBAOZHANG,SUOWEIDEZIZHIQISHIBUGUOSHIJINGZHONGHUA、SHUIZHONGYUEERYI。

    ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIYUZHAIQUANRENZIZHISUIJINYICIZHICHA,DANQINEIRONGHESHIZHIDOUDAXIANGJINGTING,SHILIANGGEWANQUANBUTONGDEGAINIAN。BIZHERENWEI,ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHITUXIANDESHIDUIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDECHENGXUBAOZHANGHEFUYUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENYIGUANGFANDECHENGXUQUANLI,WEIZHAIQUANRENSHITIQUANLIDECHUFENHESHIXIANZUOLEBIYAODEZHUNBEI,GENGJIASHIYIBEIPOCHANFALIFAXINAWEIJIBENYUANZE。

    JINGGUODUIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHINEIRONGDEFENXI,YIJIJIANGQIYUZHAIQUANRENZIZHISUOZUOZHIBIJIAO,POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIZUOWEIPOCHANFALIFADEYIXIANGYINGRANJIBENYUANZE,ZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIGETEZHENG:

   (1)ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIYIZHAIQUANRENLIYIZUIDAHUAWEIGENBENMUBIAO。JIANGCHENGXUZIZHIDEQUANLIFUYUZHAIQUANRENCONGERJIYUZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUBAOZHANG,QISHIZHISHIWEILERANGZHAIQUANRENNENGGOUFAHUINENGDONGZUOYONGYIBIANZHUIXUNZISHENLIYIDEZUIDAHUA。JINNIANLAI,POCHANFALILUNJIEDUIPOCHANFADELIFAMUDEZUOCHULEDUOYUANHUADEYANJIU,ZAILIFA、SIFACENGMIAN,YIRIBENWEIDAIBIAODEPOCHANFALIFAHESIFASHIJIANYEGENGDUODIQINGXIANGYUWANJIUKUNJINGZHONGDEQIYE。DANWULUNPOCHANFALILUNRUHEBIANHUA,BAOHUZHAIQUANRENLIYI,SHIZHAIQUANRENJIUZHAIWURENCAICHANHUODEGONGPING、PINGDENGDEQINGCHANG,SHIZHONGSHIPOCHANFAYONGYUANBUBIANDEZHUTI,ERZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIYEBIRANSHIYIZHEIYIZHUTIZUOWEIQINEIZAIQUDONGLIDE。

   (2)ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIYIZHAIQUANRENDEZHUDONGCANYUWEIQIANTI。ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHISHIJISHANGSHIYAOFAHUIZHAIQUANRENDENENGDONGZUOYONG,CONGERSHIZHAIQUANRENBAITUOWOGUOXIANYOUPOCHANSIFASHIJIANZHONG“DENG、KAO、YAO”DEXINLIZHUANGTAI,SHIZHAIQUANRENJIEZHUZHUANYEDEFUZHUJIGOUHEXIANGGUANDEZHUANJIAZUOCHUGENGJIAKEXUEDEJUECE。XUZHIWULUNSHIPOCHANZHONGZHENG、POCHANHEJIEHAISHIPOCHANQINGSUAN,SHIJISHANGDOUSHISHICHANGJINGJIHUANJINGXIAGEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDEYICIJIYULIYIPANDUANDEXUANZE,YUQIRANGZHAIQUANRENZAIZHAIQUANRENHUIYIZHAOKAISHIWUNAIDI“YONGSHOUTOUPIAO”,BURURANGZHAIQUANRENJIYULIYIQUDONGER“YONGJIAOTOUPIAO”。

   (3)ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIYIZHAIQUANRENDEYISIZIZHIHEZIZHUCHUFENWEIHEXINYAOJIAN。ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIJIUSHIYAOBINGQIWOGUOPOCHANSIFASHIJIANZHONGBUZUNZHONGZHAIQUANRENZIZHUXUANZEQUANDEZUOFA。ZAIWOGUODEPOCHANSIFASHIJIANZHEIBUDAXIZHONG,FAYUAN、ZHENGFUBUMENHEGUANLIRENDE“XIFEN”GUOZHONG,ERBENYINGCHENGWEIZHUJIAODEZHAIQUANRENQUEBIANCHENGLEPEIJIAOSHENZHISHILONGTAO。ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHI,JIUSHIYIZHAIQUANRENDEZHUGUANYISIBIAOSHIZUOWEITUIDONGJUQINGFAZHANDEHEXINYAOJIAN,RANGZHAIQUANRENZHONGXINHUIDAOZHUJIAODEWEIZHISHANGLAI。

   (4)ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIXUYAOJIEZHUYUGUANLIRENJIQITAFUZHUGONGZUORENYUANDEGONGZUOLAISHIXIAN。POCHANANJIANSHIRENMINFAYUANSHOULIDEGELEIANJIANZHONGZUIWEIFUZADEANJIANLEIXINGZHIYI,POCHANANJIANZHONGDEZHAIQUANRENTONGCHANGBINGBUJUBEICHULIZHEIXIEANJIANDEZHUANYESUYANG,RANER“ZHIHUIZHANYIDEJIANGJUNBINGBUXUYAODONGDEKAIQIANG”,ZHAIQUANRENWANQUANKEYIJIEZHUGUANLIRENJIQITAFUZHUGONGZUORENYUANDEGONGZUOLAISHIXIANQILIYIZUIDAHUADEJIAZHIZHUIQIU。TONGSHI,GUANLIRENJIQITAFUZHUGONGZUORENYUANYEBIXUZUNZHONGZHAIQUANRENDEYIZHI,BINGYIQIZHUANYEPANDUANWEIZHAIQUANRENDEJUECETIGONGCANKAO。

   (SAN)POCHANZHAIQUANRENZUOWEICHENGXUZIZHIZHUTIDEBIYAOXING

    JIANGPOCHANANJIANZHONGDEZHAIQUANRENZUOWEIPOCHANCHENGXUDEZIZHIZHUTI,SHIFEICHANGYOUBIYAODE。POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIJIANGPOCHANCHENGXUDEZHUDAOQUANJIAODAOZHAIQUANRENSHOUZHONG,YUNXUZHAIQUANRENZAIFALVDEKUANGJIAXIAJIEZHUFAYUANDELILIANGLAIJIUJIZISHENDEQUANLI,JIFUHEPOCHANDELIFAYITU,YESHUNYINGLESHICHANGJINGJIGUILV。

   (1)POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHISHIZHAIQUANRENDEZHAIQUANZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGGONGPINGSHOUCHANGDEZHONGYAOBAOZHANG。ZAIZHAIWURENYIJINGXIANRUCAIWUWEIJI,WUFAYIQICAICHANQUANMIANQINGCHANGZHAIQUANRENZHAIQUANDEQINGKUANGXIA,DUIZHAIWURENCAICHANDEGEBIEQINGCHANGKONGHUIDAOZHIZHAIQUANRENDEZHAIQUANBUNENGDEDAOGONGPINGDISHIXIAN,YINCI,BIXUJIEZHUPOCHANCHENGXULAIBAOZHANGZHAIQUANRENDEZHEIYIQUANYI,TONGSHIYEFANGZHILEZHAIWURENYINSIZIZENGSONG、ZHUANYIJIPIANPOQINGCHANGERSUNHAIQUANBUHUOBUFENZHAIQUANRENDELIYI。YAOBAOZHANGZHAIQUANRENDEZHAIQUANZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGHUODEGONGPINGQINGCHANG,YISHIYAOSHOUJIDAOGENGDUODEZHAIWURENCAICHANYIBIANYONGYUQINGCHANGZHAIWU,FANGZHIZHAIWURENYIGEZHONGFANGSHIYINNI、ZHUANYIZICHAN;ERSHIYAOSHIYIYOUDEZHAIWURENCAICHANNENGGOUGONGPINGDIZAIZHAIQUANRENZHIJIANJINXINGFENPEI。ZAIMANZUYISHANGLIANGGETIAOJIANFANGMIAN,ZHAIQUANRENDOUYOUZHEDETIANDUHOUDEYOUSHI。YOUYUCUNZAIZISHENZHAIQUANNENGGOUGENGDUOHUODEQINGCHANGDENEIZAIQUDONGLI,ZAICANYUPOCHANCHENGXUDEGEGEZHUTIDANGZHONG,ZHAIQUANRENDUICHAMINGZHAIWURENCAICHANDEJIJIXINGZUIGAO。WULUNSHIJINYIBUCHAZHAOHUIJIZHANGBUYIWAIDEZHAIWURENCAICHAN,HAISHIZHUISUOZHAIWURENGUDONGDECHUZIBUZUZERENHECHOUTAOCHUZIZEREN,NAIZHIXINGSHIPOCHANCHEXIAOQUAN、QINGQIUFAYUANQUERENZHAIWURENDEMOUXIEXINGWEIWUXIAO,ZHAIQUANRENDOUSHIZUIZHUDONGDE。SUIRANZHAIQUANRENBINGBUYIDINGJUBEIXIANGYINGDENENGLIQUWANCHENGZHEIXIEGONGZUO,DANSHIZHAIQUANRENWANQUANKEYIYILAIPINQINGBAOKUOPOCHANGUANLIRENZAINEIDEZHUANYEJIGOULAIZHIXINGTAMENDEYIYUAN。ERZAIFENPEIFANGANDEZHIDINGSHANG,GEGEZHAIQUANRENKEYITONGGUOZHAIQUANRENHUIYIJINXINGCHONGFENDEBOYI,TAMENYIZIJIDELIYIWEIZHONGXIN,TICHUYOULIYUJIDEFENPEIFANGAN,BOYIDEZUIZHONGJIEGUONAISHIZHAIQUANRENZHIJIANDETUOXIE。ZHIYOUZAIZHAIQUANRENJINGGUOZHANGSHIJIANDEBOYIRENGRANWUFADACHENGYIZHIYIJIANSHI,CAIXUYAOFAYUANJUZHONGJINXINGXIANGYINGDEXIEDIAO。

   (2)POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHISHIWANJIUZHAIWUREN,BANGZHUQIXUNQIUZHONGSHENGJIHUIDEYIGEHAOFANGFA。ZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEMUDESHIWEILEGENGHAODISHIZISHENDEZHAIQUANDEDAOQINGCHANG,ZHIYUZHAIWURENSHIFOUNENGGOUSHENGCUNXIALAI,KANSHANGQUZHAIQUANRENBINGBUGUANXIN。DANSHIJISHANG,ZHAIQUANRENYEHUIDUIZHAIWURENDEYINGYEQINGKUANGZUOCHUZONGHEPINGPAN,RUGUOJINJINSHIYINWEIQIYEYUANYOUFUZHAIGUODUO;HUOZHEQIYEYINWEISHENXIANDANBAOLIANWEIJIERMIANLINZIJINLIANDUANLIEDEZHUANGKUANG,QIYEBENSHENDEJINGYINGQINGKUANGBINGBUCHA;HUOZHEQIYEDEJINGYINGYIRANYOUWANJIUDEKENENG,ZHAIQUANRENSHIBUHUIZUOSHIQIYEZHONGSHENGJINERSHIZHAIQUANDEDAOGENGDUOQINGCHANGDESHUANGYINGLIANGJIDE。“TONGGUOPOCHANCHENGXU,ZHAIWURENKEYIZOUCHUZHAITAIGAOZHUDEYINYING,YEWEICHENGSHIDEZHAIWURENTIGONGYIGEZAISHENGJIHUI,TIXIANLEXIANDAIPOCHANFAXINDEJIAZHIQUXIANG。”[7]2007NIANBANBUSHISHIDEXIANXINGPOCHANFAZAIDIBAZHANGYIZHUANZHANGDEXINGSHIGUIDINGLEPOCHANZHONGZHENGZHIDU,JIUSHIDAPOLEPOCHANDENGYUQINGSUAN、POCHANDENGYUQIYEZUOWEISHICHANGZHUTIGUIYUXIAOMIEDEJIUYOUGUANNIAN,YUNXUQIYENENGGOUZAIZHONGZHENGGUOCHENGZHONGHUIFUSHENGJI,ZHONGXINTOURUSHICHANGYUNZUO。DANQIYEYAOHUODEZHONGSHENG,JIUBIXUYUNXUQIYUZHAIQUANRENZHIJIANZAIPOCHANCHENGXUDEKUANGJIANEIJINXINGTANPAN,BAOZHENGQIYEZAIZHAIQUANRENDEJIANDUZHIXIAJINXINGLIANGHAODEYUNZUO。ZAIZHAIQUANRENBIJIAODANYIDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHAIQUANRENSHENZHIKEYIZHIJIEJIEGUANQIYECONGERZHUDAOQIYEDESHENGCHANJINGYING。ZHEIYANGYILAI,ZHAIQUANRENHEZHAIWURENZHIJIANXINGCHENGDEZHEIZHONGZANSHIDEMOQIBUDANNENGGOUBANGZHUQIYEDUGUONANGUAN,TONGSHIZHAIQUANRENDEJIERUHAIJIANGWEIQIYEZAIGUANLI、SHENGCHAN、YINGXIAODENGGEGEHUANJIESHANGTIGONGBANGZHU,ZHEIBUDANBAOZHANGLEZHAIQUANRENZISHENDELIYI,YESHIWANJIUZHAIWURENDEYIGEJUEHAOTUJING。

   (3)POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHISHILIYONGPOCHANFAGUIFANSHICHANGTUICHUJIZHIDEZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN。ZHENGSHIYINWEIPOCHANFANENGGOUJIEJUESHICHANGZHUTIDEYOUXUTUICHUWENTI,BINGQIEBANSUIZHEQIYETUICHUERJIANGQIYUANYOUDEZIYUANZAIXINGYOUHUAPEIZHI,SUOYIXIANDAIPOCHANFAZUOWEIYIBUSHICHANGJINGJIZHIFAYOUZHE“JINGJIXIANFA”DEMEICHENG。[8]ZHIYOUJIANGPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEZHUDAOQUANJIAODAOZHAIQUANRENSHOUZHONG,CAINENGRANGZHAIQUANRENGANSHOUDAOPINGJIEPOCHANCHENGXUKEYISHIZISHENLIYIHUODEZUIDAMANZU,YIDANZHAIQUANRENRENSHIDAOPOCHANCHENGXUDEJIJIYOUXIAO,BIANHUIDUISHENQINGPOCHANZHEIYIZUINENGGOUGUIFANSHICHANGTUICHUJIZHIDECHENGXUQINGYOUDUZHONG,ERBUZAIMANGMUDISHIYONGSILIJIUJIDEFANGSHIQUWEIHUZISHENDELIYI。ZONGGUANWOGUOPOCHANSIFASHIJIAN,YOUYUPOCHANCHENGXUDEZHUDAOQUANMUQIANWANQUANZHANGWOZAIFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENSHOUZHONG,ZHAIQUANRENBINGBUKANZHONGPOCHANCHENGXUNENGGOULINGTADEQUANYIHUODEDUODADEJIUJI,YINCIZONGSHICAIQUSHANGMENBIZHAI、SIZIQINZHANZHAIWURENCAICHANYONGYUDIZHAIDENGFANGSHILAIMANZUZISHENDECHANGZHAIXUQIU,CONGERYANZHONGRAOLUANLESHICHANGJINGJIZHIXU。

   (4)POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHISHIYOUHUAZIYUANPEIZHIDEZUIJIAGUIZE。POCHANCHENGXUDEZHUDAOQUANYIDANZHANGWOZAIZHAIQUANRENSHOUZHONG,DUIZHAIWURENCAICHANDECHUZHIJIANGHUIGENJUSHICHANGDEXUQIUZUOCHUZUIHELIDEFENPEI。SHICHANGSHIYIZHIWUXINGDESHOU,ZHAIQUANRENZHUDAODECAICHANCHUZHIZUNXUNSHICHANGGUILV,ZAIYIMAIYIMAIJIANJIANGYUANSHUZHAIWURENDECAICHANZUOLEYOUHUAPEIZHI。ERZAIWOGUODANGXIADEPOCHANSIFASHIJIANZHONG,XIANYOUDEFUYUANLIANDONGJIZHIHUOFAYUANZHUDAOMOSHIXIADECAICHANCHUZHIQUEXIANDEYICHANGCUBAOHEXIAAI: ZAIZHAIWURENCAICHANDECHUZHIBUYINGXIANGDIFANGJINGJIDEQINGKUANGXIA,YOUYUZHAIQUANRENBUNENGYOUXIAODIZHUDAOZHAIWURENCAICHANDECHUZHISHIYI,ERJINGFAYUANTIAOXUANPINRENDEGUANLIRENYEBUXUYAODUIZHAIQUANRENGUODUOFUZE,YINCIGUANLIRENDUIZHAIWURENCAICHANDECHUZHIFEICHANGCAOLV。BIRU,CHULIYITIAOQIYEDESHENGCHANLIUSHUIXIAN,RUGUOJIANGJIQISHEBEICHAIFENBINGZHUANMAIJIQITAYOUXUYAODEQIYE,BUDANZONGDEMAIJIAKEYITIGAO,MAIZOUSHEBEIDEQIYEYEKEYICHONGFENDILIYONGHAOSUOXUDEJIQISHEBEI。DANSHISHIJIANZHONGDECHUZHIFANGFAZESHIJIANGZHENGTIAOLIUSHUIXIANYITICHUZHI,ERZHEIYANGDECHUZHIFANGSHIMAIJIABUDANYAOFUCHUGENGWEIGAOANGDEDAIJIA,ERQIEQIBUXUYAODESHEBEIYEZHINENGZAIXINGZHUANMAI,CONGERYANZHONGYINGXIANGLEZICHANDECHUZHIJIAGE,YEDAOZHIZHAIWURENCAICHANBUNENGHUODEGENGHAODEERCILIYONG。ERYIDANCHUXIANZHAIWURENCAICHANDECHUZHIHUIDAOZHICHANYEZHUANYIJINERYINGXIANGDIFANGJINGJIQINGKUANG,GUANLIRENYOUHUISHOUZHIYUFUYUANLIANDONGJIZHI,WEISHOUGOUCAICHANSHEZHIHENDUODEMENJIAN,YINGXIANGGAICAICHANFAHUIQIYINGYOUDEJINGJIXIAOYONG。

    ER、POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEGONGNENG

   (YI)BAOZHENGPOCHANFAPINGDENGBAOHUGELEIXINGQIYE

    POCHANFAZHUYAOYONGYIJIEJUESHENMELEIXINGQIYEDEPOCHANANJIAN?ZHEIKANSHANGQUSIHUXIANGSHIYIGEWEIMINGTI。YINWEI《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOQIYEPOCHANFA》DIERTIAOYIJINGMINGWENGUIDING: “QIYEFARENBUNENGQINGCHANGDAOQIZHAIWU,BINGQIEZICHANBUZUYIQINGCHANGQUANBUZHAIWUHUOZHEMINGXIANQUEFAQINGCHANGNENGLIDE,YIZHAOBENFAGUIDINGQINGLIZHAIWU。QIYEFARENYOUQIANKUANGUIDINGQINGXING,HUOZHEYOUMINGXIANSANGSHIQINGCHANGNENGLIKENENGDE,KEYIYIZHAOBENFAGUIDINGJINXINGZHONGZHENG。”GENJUZHEIYITIAO,WOGUOXIANXINGPOCHANFASHIKEYIYONGLAIJIEJUESUOYOULEIXINGDEQIYEFARENZHIPOCHANJIUFENDE。DANSHI,SIFASHIJIANZHONGFAYUANDUIYUPOCHANANJIANSHIFOUYENENGGOUBUFENLEIBIE,GONGPINGYIZHIDIQUDUIDAISUOYOUQIYEDEPOCHANSHENQINGNI,CONGSIFASHIJIANZHONGRENMINFAYUANSHOULIPOCHANANJIANDESHULIANGZAIXINPOCHANFASHISHIQIANHOUDEBIJIAOLAIKAN,QINGKUANGBINGBUSHIZHEIYANG。ZAI2007NIAN6YUE1RIZHIQIAN,WOGUOPOCHANANJIANSHIYONGDESHI1986NIANBANBUSHISHIDE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOQIYEPOCHANFA》(SHIXING),GENJUGAIFADIERTIAODEGUIDING: “BENFASHIYONGYUQUANMINSUOYOUZHIQIYE”,KEJIAN,2007NIAN6YUE1RIZHIQIAN,WOGUOFAYUANJINSHOULIGUOYOUQIYEZHONGDEYIBUFENQIYE(QUANMINSUOYOUZHIQIYEJINSHIGUOYOUQIYEDEYIBUFEN,GUANGYIDEGUOYOUQIYEHAIBAOKUOGUOJIAKONGGUDEGUFENYOUXIANGONGSIHEYOUXIANZERENGONGSI)DEPOCHANANJIAN。DAO2007NIAN6YUE1RIYIHOU,XINDEPOCHANFASHISHI,QUANBUDEQIYEZHIYAOYUDAOXUYAOPOCHANDEQINGKUANG,RENMINFAYUANDOUYINGDANGYISHITONGRENDIJIAYISHOULI。JIYUZHEIGETUILUN,ZHENGGUICAIPIAORUANJIAN2020BUFANGYI2007NIANWEILINJIEDIAN,KANYIKANWOGUOFAYUANZAIZHEIYINIANQIANHOUGERUOGANNIANDEPOCHANANJIANSHOULISHULIANG。

BIAO1.1  2001-2012NIANWOGUOPOCHANANJIANSHULIANGBIAO[9]

NIAN  FEN

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

SHULIANG(QI)

8939

6463

6380

4953

3419

2857

NIAN  FEN

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

SHULIANG(QI)

3207

2955

2434

1973

2531

2100

    CONGQIANSHUBIAOGEKEJIAN,CONG2001NIANDAO2006NIAN,WOGUOFAYUANDUIQIYEPOCHANANJIANDESHOULISHULIANGYIZHICHENGXIANXIAJIANGQUSHI。2007NIANWOGUOFAYUANDUIQIYEPOCHANANJIANDESHOULISHULIANGSUILVEYOUHUISHENG,DANSHIBINGMEIYOUYINWEI《XINPOCHANFA》DESHISHIYIJIQIANZAIDEXUYAOSHENQINGPOCHANDEQIYESHULIANGDADAZENGJIAERCHENGXIANCHUJINGPENSHIDEZENGZHANG。QIECONG2008NIANKAISHI,WOGUOFAYUANDUIQIYEPOCHANANJIANDESHOULISHULIANGZAIDUKAISHIXIAJIANG,BINGYIZHIWEICHIZAI2000DUOJIANDEGUIMO。ZHEIYANGDESHUJUBUDEBURANGRENGANDAOQIGUAI,2007NIANZHIQIANWOGUOGUOYOUQIYEDEPOCHANANJIANSHULIANGJIUYIJINGDADAOLE3000JIANZUOYOU,ER2007NIANZHIHOUWOGUODEPOCHANANJIANSHULIANGQUEZHIYOU2000DUOJIANDEGUIMO,ZHEILIMIANKENDINGHAIYOUGUOYOUQIYESUOZHANDEJIAODABILI,ERQIECONGXIANXINGPOCHANFASHISHIZHIQIANFAYUANSHOULIGUOYOUQIYEPOCHANANJIANDESHULIANGLAIKAN,ZHEIGEBILIBINGBUDI,ZHEIZHENGHAOCONGLINGYIGECENGMIANFANYINGLEWOGUOFAYUANZAIPOCHANANJIANDESHOULISHANGDUIGUOYOUQIYEHEMINYINGQIYECUNZAIZHEQUBIEDUIDAIDEWENTI。JINIANLAI,YIXIEYANJIUZHONGGUOPOCHANFADEWAIGUOXUEZHEYECHIYOUZHEIYANGDEGUANDIAN。[10]

    YAOJIEJUEWOGUOFAYUANXITONGZAIPOCHANCHENGXUSHANGDUIBUTONGLEIXINGQIYEDEBUPINGDENGBAOHU,JIUBIXUYIKAOPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHI。QIYEXUNQIUPOCHANSHIXUNQIUBAOHUERBUSHIXUANZE“ZISHA”,QIEBUSHUOPOCHANZHONGZHENGCHENGXUKEYIBANGZHUQIYEHUODEZHONGSHENG,JIUSUANSHIZOUDAOLEQINGSUANCHENGXU,YEKEYIBANGZHUQIYEYOUXUTUICHUSHICHANG,SHITOUZIRENZHONGXINZHENZUODONGSHANZAIQI,ERBUSHITINGRENYIGEJIJIKEWEIDEQIYEZHAITAIGAOZHUERZHENGTIANBEIZHAIQUANRENCUIBIQIANKUAN。RUGUOZHIYOUGUOYOUQIYECAINENGZAIPOCHANBAOHUZHONGHUODEXINSHENG,NEIMEDUIYUGUANGDAMINYINGQIYEERYANWUYISHIFEICHANGBUGONGPINGDE。MINYINGQIYESHIWOGUOJINGJIHUOLIDEZHUYAOGONGXIANZHEZHIYI,SHIWOGUOJINGJIZENGZHANGDEWEIERQUDONGLI,JIEJUEBUHAOMINYINGQIYEDEPOCHANWENTI,DUIWOGUODESHICHANGJINGJIZHIXUSHIBIZAOCHENGJIDADEPOHUAI。DANSHI,MIANDUISHULIANGZHONGDUODEMINYINGQIYEPOCHANANJIAN,FAYUANHEZHENGFUYIXIEDIAORENDESHENFENCHUCHANGLAIWANJIUQIYEHUOHUAJIEZHENGDUANSHIBUKEXINGDE。ZAIWOGUODANGQIANDEPOCHANSIFASHIJIANZHONG,FAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENZHINENGGUJIGUOYOUQIYEDEPOCHANBAOHUXUQIUERBUQUGUJIMINYINGQIYEDEPOCHANBAOHUXUQIU,SUIRANSHICHUYUGUOJIAGANYUDEBUDANGCHULI,DANZHEIZHONGBUDANGCHULIDEBEIHOUYOUBAOHANZHEXINSUANHEWUNAI。QUESHI,YAOANZHAOXIANZAISHENLIPOCHANANJIANDESILUHEMOSHI,FAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENDEGONGZUORENYUANJIUSHIBUFENZHOUYEDIGONGZUO,YEBUKENENGWANQUANZUOHAOMINYINGQIYEPOCHANZHONGDEXIEDIAOGONGZUO。NEIME,YAOTUPOFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENZAIPOCHANANJIANZHONGJUZHONGXIEDIAORENDESHUFU,JIUBIXUYILAIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZAICHENGXUZHONGDEZHUDAOQUANHEZIZHUCHUFEN。YUFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENBUYIYANG,POCHANZHAIQUANRENZUOWEIYIGELIXINGDESHICHANGREN,QITEBIEZHUZHONGSHICHANGGUILV。ZAIDUIHEJIE、ZHONGZHENGHEQINGSUANCHENGXUDEXUANZESHANG,ZAIDUIGEZHONGCHENGXUZHONGZUIZHONGFANGANDEZHIDINGSHANG,ZAIDUIGEZHONGLEIXINGZHAIQUANRENDEXIEDIAOSHANG,DOUKEYITONGGUOPINQINGZHUANYEJIGOUHEZHUANYEGUANLIRENLAIZUOCHUKEXUEHELIDEJUECE。FANGSHOUSHOULIZHAIQUANRENDEPOCHANSHENQING,BUYINQIYEDELEIXINGERZUOCHUQUBIEDUIDAI,ZHAOZHUNTEBIEXIANGFUCHIDEQIYECHUSHOUBANGFU,YIJIBAITUOZHAIQUANRENDUIFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENDEYILAI,BUJINBUHUILINGPINGDENGDUIDAIQIYEPOCHANBAOHUXUQIUDEFAYUANCHENGWEIBUWENDINGZHIYUAN,HAIHUISHIQICHENGWEIWENDINGZHIJI。ZAIAODALIYAHEYINGGUODEPOCHANFAZHONG,CUNZAISUOWEIDEJIEGUANCHENGXU,YEJIZAIGONGSIMIANLINCAIWUWEIJI,ERZHAIQUANRENLEIXINGXIANGDUIDANYIQIEWEIDANBAOZHAIQUANRENSHI,YOUDANBAOZHAIQUANRENHUOFAYUANRENMINGZHUANYEPOCHANJIEGUANRENDUIQIYEJINXINGJIEGUAN。JIEGUANRENDERENMINGBUXUYAOJINGGUOFAYUANDETONGYI,CHENGXUYIDANQIDONG,JIEGUANRENJIYOUQUANJUEDINGJIXUJINGYINGQIYE、GUANBIQIYEHUOZHEJIANGQIYECAICHANPAIMAI,[11]ZHEIYANGGAOXIAOERSHIYONGQIEYIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENWEIZHUDAODEPOCHANCHENGXU,CAISHIXIANXINGPOCHANFAXUEXIDEMOBAN。

   (ER)BAOZHENGPOCHANANJIANSHENLIDEGONGZHENGYUGAOXIAO

    2009NIAN3YUE27RI,YINWEIZIJINLIANDUANLIEWULICHANGHAIZHAIWU,MEIGUOTONGYONGDIANQISHANGYEHANGKONGZHENGGUICAIPIAORUANJIAN2020GONGSIDENGLIUJIAZHAIQUANRENSHENQINGDONGXINGHANGKONGGONGSIPOCHAN。2009NIAN3YUE30RI,WUHANSHIZHONGJIRENMINFAYUANSHOULICIANHOU,ZHIDINGYOUWUHANSHIGONGANJU、WUHANSHIJIAOTONGWEIYUANHUI、WUHANSHIZONGGONGHUI、WUHANSHIFAZHIBANDENGDUOGEZHENGFUJIGOU,XIETONGHUBEIYINJIANJU、ZHONGGUORENMINYINXINGWUHANFENXINGDENGDUOGEBUSHUJIGOUZUCHENGLIANHEGUANLIREN,GONGTONGGUANLIDONGXINGHANGKONGGONGSI。2009NIAN4YUE8RI,ZHONGHANGYOUJIDONGXINGHANGKONGDERUOGANJIAZHAIQUANRENXIANGWUHANSHIZHONGYUANTICHUZHONGZHENGSHENQING,DANZAITONGNIAN6YUE12RIBEIWUHANSHIZHONGYUANCAIDINGBOHUI。JIEZHICISHI,YIJINGYOU8JIABUTONGDESHENQINGRENXIANGWUHANSHIZHONGYUANTIJIAOLEBUTONGDEZHONGZHENGSHENQINGFANGAN,DANJUNBEIWUHANSHIZHONGYUANBOHUI。2009NIAN6YUE23RI,ZHONGHANGYOUDENGZHONGZHENGSHENQINGRENXIANGHUBEISHENGGAOJIRENMINFAYUANTICHUSHANGSU,QINGQIUDUIDONGXINGHANGKONGJINXINGZHONGZHENG,DANZAIHUBEISHENGGAOYUANZUOCHUCAIDINGZHIQIAN,DONGXINGHANGKONGDEPOCHANGUANLIRENZAIWUHANSHIMEITISHANGBIAOTAI,RENWEIDONGXINGHANGKONGFUZHAISHUEJIAODA,QIEZULINDEFEIJIYIJINGBEIMEIGUOTONGYONGDIANQISHANGYEHANGKONGZHENGGUICAIPIAORUANJIAN2020GONGSISHOUHUI,BUCUNZAIZHONGZHENGDEKENENGXING。YUZHIXIANGDUIYINGDESHIDONGXINGHANGKONGDEGAOGUANZAITONGYISHIQIDEMEITISHANGFASHENG,BIAOSHIDONGXINGHANGKONG120GEZHUYAOZHAIQUANRENZHONG,YOU75%DEZHAIQUANRENQINGXIANGYUDONGXINGHANGKONGZHONGZHENG。2009NIAN8YUE25RI,HUBEISHENGGAOYUANZUOCHUCAIDING,JUEDINGCHEXIAOCIQIANWUHANSHIZHONGYUANDUIQIZHONGYIGESHENQINGRENJIXINZHONGLIJITUANZHONGZHENGSHENQINGDEBUYUSHOULICAIDING,YAOQIUWUHANSHIZHONGYUANLIANSHOULICIAN。CISHI,JINZHIYOUXINZHONGLIJITUANCHENGWEIDONGXINGHANGKONGZHONGZHENGDEZUIHOURUJUREN,DANJIUZAIDUANDUAN24GEXIAOSHIZHIHOU,WUHANSHIZHONGYUANZAICIZUOCHUZUIHOUCAIDING,BOHUIXINZHONGLIJITUANDEZHONGZHENGSHENQING,DONGXINGHANGKONGZHENGSHIXUANGAOPOCHAN,BINGCHENGWEILEXINZHONGGUOYOUSHIYILAIDIYIJIAPOCHANDEHANGKONGGONGSI。[12]

    YUDONGXINGHANGKONGPOCHANANJIANDEBEIJUXINGJIEJUJIERANBUTONG,ZAIMEIGUO,HANGKONGGONGSIXIANGFAYUANSHENQINGPOCHANBAOHUBINGZUIZHONGCHENGGONGHUODEZHONGZUDEANLIBIBIJIESHI。YIMEIGUOHANGKONGPOCHANANWEILI,MEIGUOHANGKONGSHIMEIGUOJINGNEIDEZHULIUHANGKONGGONGSI,ZAIMEIGUOHANGKONGGONGSIZHONGPAIMINGDIQIWEI,GAIGONGSIZAIMEIGUOHEGUOJISHANGDOUYONGYOUZHEQIANGDADEHANGKONGYUNSHUWANGLUO。2011NIAN11YUE,JIANYUGONGSICAIWUZHUANGKUANGBINGGENJUMEIGUOPOCHANFADI11ZHANGDEGUIDING,MEIGUOHANGKONGDEMUGONGSIAMRJITUANXIANGZHENGFUBEIANBINGXIANGPOCHANFAYUANTICHUPOCHANBAOHUSHENQING。ZAIMEIGUO,YIDANZHAIWURENGENJU《MEIGUOPOCHANFA》DI11ZHANGXIANGPOCHANFAYUANSHENQINGPOCHANBAOHU,POCHANFAYUANJIJIANGWEIQIZHIDINGYIWEITUOGUANREN,ZAIYOUGAITUOGUANRENGENJUXUYAOZUJIANYIGEHUORUOGANGEZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUI。[13]ZHEIXIEZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIYOUXIANGYINGDEQIGEZUIDADEZHAIQUANRENDAIBIAOZUCHENG,TAMENJIANGDAIBIAOSUOYOUWUDANBAOZHAIQUANRENDELIYICANYUGONGSIDEPOCHANBAOHUCHENGXU。JINGFAYUANPIZHUN,ZHEIXIEWEIYUANHUIKEYIJUEDINGPINYONGLVSHI、HUIJISHIDENGDAILIRENWEIQIZHENGGUICAIPIAORUANJIAN2020。TAMENJIANGBEISHOUQUANDIAOCHASHENQINGZHONGZUQIYEDEZICHAN、FUZHAIDENGCAIWUZHUANGKUANGHEYUNYINGQINGKUANG,HESHISHIFOUYOUBIYAOJIXUYUNXUGAIQIYEWEICHIYUNYING,BINGKAOCHAHECANYUQIZHONGZUJIHUADEZHIDING。CIHOU,ZHONGZUQIYEYUZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIXIEZUOYIQIUDEHOUZHEJIESHOUZHONGZUJIHUA,WEIYUANHUIZUIZHONGJIANGXIANGFAYUANTIJIAOJIESHOUHUOJUJUEZHONGZUJIHUADESHUOMING。[14]RUGUOZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIJIESHOUZHAIWURENQIYEDEZHONGZUJIHUA,POCHANFAYUANJIDUICIYUYIQUEREN,ZHAIWURENGONGSIYINCIZOUCHUPOCHANBAOHU。RUGUOZHAIWURENGONGSIJIXUKUISUNQIEBINGWUHUIFUDEKENENG,HUOZHEZHAIWURENGONGSIBUNENGYOUXIAODISHISHIZHONGZUJIHUA,HUOJIANYIDEZHONGZUJIHUADOUZAODAOZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIJUJUE,POCHANFAYUANJIKEGENJUQIYETUOGUANRENHUOYOUGUANYIFANGDEQINGQIUJUXINGTINGZHENGHUI,SHIQINGKUANGJIANGQIYEDEPOCHANBAOHUCHENGXUGENGGAIWEIPOCHANQINGSUANCHENGXU,ZHAIWURENGONGSISUIJIYOUPOCHANBAOHULUNWEIPOCHANQINGSUAN。[15] 2013NIAN2YUE,AMRJITUANZHENGSHIXUANBULEYUQUANMEIHANGKONGJITUANJINXINGLIANHEZHONGZUDEFANGAN,BINGJIHUADAZAOYIJIADANGJINSHIJIESHANGZUIDADEHANGKONGGONGSI。GENJULIANHEZHONGZUDEFANGAN,MEIGUOHANGKONGMUGONGSIAMRJITUANDEZHAIQUANSUOYOURENCHIYOUXINGONGSI72%DEGUQUAN,ERQUANMEIHANGKONGJITUANDEGUDONGZECHIYOUYUXIA28%DEGUQUAN。ZHEIYIZHONGZUFANGANBEIZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUISUOTONGGUO,MEIGUOHANGKONGGONGSIPOCHANZHONGZUDEYICHENGGONGSHIXIAN。

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    YIFANGMIAN,POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHICHONGFENFAHUILEZHAIQUANRENDEZHUGUANNENGDONGXING,YOUCIKEYIBANGZHUZHENGFUBUMENHEFAYUANXIEXIACHENZHONGDEGONGZUOFUDAN。YIQIANSHUMEIGUOHANGKONGPOCHANZHONGZUANWEILI,MEIGUOHANGKONGJIHUZAIXIANGMEIGUOPOCHANFAYUANSHENQINGPOCHANDETONGSHI,MASHANGZHESHOUZUJIANLEZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUI,ZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIZAITONGGUOZIXINGPINQINGZHUANYEJIGOUDUIZHAIWURENDEYINGYEQINGKUANGJINXINGPINGGU,BINGYUZHAIWURENDACHENGLEZHONGZHENGDEXIANGGUANXIEYI。ZHAIQUANRENNENGGOUYOUZHEIYANGGAODEXIAOLV,NAISHIYINWEIZHAIWURENQIYEDEZHONGZHENGJIEGUOYUZHAIQUANRENDELIYIXIXIXIANGGUAN,ZHIYAOFANGSHOURANGZHAIQUANRENCANYUQIZHONG,ZHAIQUANRENDEJIJIXINGHEZHUDONGXINGBIANKEYILIJIDIAODONGQILAI。ERYIDANZHAIQUANRENZAIZHENGGEPOCHANANJIANSUOSHEJINGYING、GUANLI、RENYUANPINYONGDENGWENTISHANGZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI,BINGWANCHENGJUEDADUOSHUGONGZUO,ZHENGFUBUMENHEFAYUANDEGONGZUOYALIJIUHUIDADAJIANQING。ZAIMEIGUO,POCHANANJIANYOULIANBANGFAYUANGUANXIA,LIANBANGFAYUAN2014NIANSHOULIDEQITAMINSHISUSONGANJIANSHULIANGWEI295310QI,ERPOCHANANJIANSHULIANGWEI963739QI[17],DANSHIYEMEIJIANLIANBANGFAYUANDEFAGUANBAOYUANANJIANYALITAIDA。FANGUOLAIZAIKANDONGXINGHANGKONGPOCHANAN,FAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENQIANTOUZUJIANDEPOCHANGUANLIRENDUIQIYEDEGANYUYIJINGYANZHONGCHAOCHULECHANGRENKEYILIJIEDEFANWEI: SUIRANYOUDUOGEZHAIQUANRENTICHULEBUTONGDEPOCHANZHONGZHENGFANGAN,DANWUHANSHIZHENGFUHEWUHANZHONGYUANQUEJUEYIYAOJIANGDONGXINGHANGKONGCHAIKAISHUAIMAI,ERQIETAIDUZHIJIANJUESHENZHIKEYISHUOSHIWANQUANBUJIAKAOLVDE。HUBEISHENGGAOYUANFAHUIZHONGSHENDECAIDINGJINJINCHUJU24XIAOSHIHOU,WUHANSHIZHONGYUANZAICICAIDINGBOHUISHENQINGRENDESHENQING,WOGUOFAYUANDECAIPANYONGYOUZHEIMEGAODE“XIAOLV”,BUZHIYINGDANGRANGRENGANDAOKEXIHAISHIKEBEI。DANHAOWUYIWENDESHI,FAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENGUODUODEXINGZHENGGANYUHEJUBUFANGQUANYIJINGYANZHONGDICUOSHANGLEZHAIQUANRENDEJIJIXING,ERQIEYESHIFAYUANBEIFULECHENZHONGDEHESHIWUBIYAODEGONGZUOFUDAN。

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   (SAN)TIGONGDUOYUANJIUJIQUDAO

    笔者在实践中曾经遇到这样一个破产案例[18]: 债务人是2002年设立于某知名风景区的一家房地产公司,该公司在2003年5月以拍卖方式取得了景区内的一块总面积为132亩的国有建设用地的使用权,土地性质为商住用地。债务人在2003年12月获得前述地块的建设用地规划许可和建设许可,对于前述地块,该公司规划建设独栋和联排别墅共计198幢,同时规划在小区内建设大楼一幢用于经营五星级酒店。2005年1月,债务人获得房屋预售许可证,此后将198幢别墅中的196幢预售给各个业主,各业主均支付了全部或大部分房款,债务人也为业主办单位:正规彩票软件2020_2020十大正规彩票|信誉平台

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    JINGQUFAYUANSHOULIBENANZHIHOU,TONGGUOCHOUQIANXINGSHIXUANDINGLEPOCHANGUANLIREN。POCHANGUANLIRENJIESHOUPOCHANQIYEYIHOU,RENWEIGAIFANGDICHANGONGSISHIJIGONGZUORENYUANJINYOUJIREN,BUJUBEIZHONGZHENGDEKENENG,YUSHIBUGUZHAIQUANRENQIANGLIEFANDUI,XIANGFAYUANBAOGAOYAOQIUJIANGANJIANYOUZHONGZHENGCHENGXUZHUANWEIQINGSUANCHENGXU,BINGJUEDINGDUIBAOKUOYISHOUCHUDEBIESHUZAINEIDEZHAIWURENCAICHANJINXINGSIFAPAIMAI。JINGGUOZHAIQUANRENHUIYIYISHENQINGJIEPINGUANLIRENDENGFANGSHIDEZHONGZHONGZULAN,ZUIZHONGGUANLIRENCAITONGYIDUIGAIFANGDICHANGONGSIJINXINGZHONGZHENGBINGZHIDINGZHONGZHENGFANGAN。DANGUANLIRENANZHAO2008NIANZHAIQUANRENTICHUDEZHONGZHENGSHENQINGNEIRONGSUOZHIDINGDEZHONGZHENGFANGANQUEFEICHANGBUQIESHIJI: GAIJINGQUNEICISHIYIJINGYONGYOUWUJIAWUXINGJIJIUDIANHEDUOGEHAOHUADUJIACUN,RUGUOSIFAPAIMAIGAIJIUDIAN,NEIMEJIAGEBIRANHENDISHENZHIGENBENWURENWENJIN,ERQIYUFEIYONGYOUYIJINGGOUFANGDEYEZHUJUNTAN,MEIGEYEZHUYAOFUCHUDEJINEXIANGDANGDA。GUANLIRENDEGUANLIFANGANZUIZHONGWUFAZAIZHAIQUANRENHUIYISHANGTONGGUO,DAOZHIANJIANTUIJINYISHIXIANRUTINGZHI。2017NIAN6YUE,GAIANJIANTURANCHENGXIANZHUANJI。YOUYIJIASHANGSHIGONGSIYUANYIQUANBUSHOUGOUGAIFANGDICHANGONGSIDEQUANBUZICHAN,BINGJIANGYIYOUDEJIANSHEQUANBUTUIDAOHOUZHONGXINJIANSHE,JIANLIYIGEGAODUANDEYANGLAOSHEQU。YUSHIZHAIQUANRENYOUZAICIHOUXIANGGUANLIRENHEFAYUANTICHUQINGSUANSHENQING,DANSHIGUANLIRENHEFAYUANYIZHAIQUANRENZIJIFANFUYAOQIUDUIFANGDICHANGONGSIJINXINGZHONGZHENGWEIYOU,BOHUILEZHAIQUANRENDEQINGSUANSHENQING。HOULAI,YOUYUHUODETUDISHIYONGQUANWUWANG,GAISHANGSHIGONGSICHENGXINGERLAIBAIXINGERQU,ERGUANLIRENYOURENGRANWUFANACHUHAODEZHONGZHENGFANGANBINGHUODEZHAIQUANRENDESHOUKEN,ZUIZHONGANJIANXIANRUTINGZHI。

    QIANSHUANLISHIWOGUOXIANYOUYIFAYUANWEIZHUDAODEPOCHANANJIANSHENLIMOSHIDEYIGESUOYING。ZAIYIFAYUANWEIZHUDAODEPOCHANANJIANSHENLIMOSHIXIA,POCHANANJIANDECHULIHAOWULINGHUOXING,DUIZHAIQUANRENQUANYIDEBAOHULUJINGDANYI,WULUNSHIZHONGZHENGYEHAOQINGSUANYEBA,GUIGENDAODIJIUSHIYIGEZI: “MAI”!JISHISHICHUSHOUZICHAN,YEBINGBUZHUYICHUSHOUZICHANDEFANGSHIFANGFA。ERPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIZEZHENGHAONENGGOUTUPOZHEIYIKUNJING。DANGPOCHANANJIANXIANRUWUFATUIJINDEGANGAJUMIANSHI,ZHIYOUFAHUIZHAIQUANRENDEZIZHUXING,FANGNENGJIZHONGRENZHIZHIYIZHI,SHOUZHONGRENZHICAIYICAI,XIAOCHUXIANGYINGDEANJIANBANLIZULI。

   (1)ZAIZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIMOSHIZHIXIA,ZHAIQUANRENTONGGUODUIPOCHANCHENGXUDEZIZHUXUANZE,KEYIZHAODAOZUIJUXIAOLVHEXIAOYIDEJIUJIFANGSHI。ZAIQIANSHUANLIZHONG,JINGQUFAYUANRUGUONENGGOUZAOYU2008NIAN3YUEJIUSHOULIZHAIQUANRENDESHENQING,NEIMEANJIANDEJIEJUESHIFEICHANGRONGYIDE: CISHIJINGQULVYOUYEZHENGCHUYUDAFAZHANSHIQI,DUIJINGQUNEIHAOHUAJIUDIANDETOUZIZHENGCHUYUGAOCHAO,ZHUANMAIYIJINRUZHUANGXIUJIEDUANDEWUXINGJIJIUDIANJIJUTOUZIXIYINLI。YINGGAISHUO,YIGEYEZHUWEIZHUDEZHAIQUANRENSHIJIYIJINGZHAODAOLEJIEJUEANJIANDEZUIJIALUJING,XUYAODEJINSHIFAYUANSHOULIANJIANBINGANZHAOZHAIQUANRENDESILUWANCHENGZHONGZHENGCHENGXU。DANYOUYUFAYUANJUJUESHOULIGAIAN,DAOZHIKENENGZOUDETONGDEDAOLUBEICHEDIDUSI,ZHAIQUANRENZAIZHANGDABANIANDESHIJIANLIKONGYOUDAEGOUFANGKUANDETOUZI,QUEJIBUNENGRUZHUXIAOQUCONGERXIANGSHOUFANGWUDESHIZHIGONGNENG,YEBUNENGZHUANMAIERHUODEXIANGYINGDETOUZIHUIBAO,ZUOKUNCHOUCHENG,WUFAZHAODAOXIANGYINGDECHULU。ERZAI2017NIANFAYUANSHOULIGAIPOCHANANJIANZHIHOU,YINWEIPOCHANGUANLIRENBINGFEIYOUZHAIQUANRENZIZHUXUANZECHANSHENG,POCHANGUANLIRENZHISHIWEILEWANCHENGZHENGFUBUMENJINKUAICHUZHI“JIANGSHIQIYE”DEZHIBIAO,SUOYIJINSHIZAICUBAODIDUIZHAIWURENCAICHANJINXINGQINGSUANCHUZHI,YIQIUJINKUAILEJIEANJIAN。ERZAIANJIANZUIZHONGRENGXUANZEZHONGZHENGMOSHIZHIHOU,YOUYUGAIGUANLIRENLAIZIWAISHENG,DUIYUDANGDIDELVYOUYESHICHANGDIAOCHABUCHONGFEN,YINCIZUOCHUDEZHONGZHENGFANGANYESHIBUQIESHIJIDE。ERZAIZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIMOSHIZHIXIA,FAYUANDUIPOCHANANJIANYUPUTONGMINSHISUSONGANJIANDESHOULIBINGWUERZHI,GURUOZHAIQUANRENXUYAOTONGGUOPOCHANCHENGXUXUANZEJIUJI,JIUYIDINGNENGGOUZAIFAYUANLIANSHOULI。ZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUDANGZHONG,KEYIZIZHUXUANZEZIJIXINDEGUODEJIGOUDANRENGUANLIREN,ERGUANLIRENYOUYIXIEZHUZHAIQUANRENHUODEZUIDALIYIWEIJIREN,TONGGUOCHONGFENDESHICHANGDIAOYAN,JINXINJINLIDIQUCHULIGUANLISHIWU。YIDANGUANLIRENZUODEBUHAO,ZHAIQUANRENHAIKEYIZHICHUGUANLIRENDEBUZU,SHENZHIZHIJIEJUEDINGGENGHUANGUANLIREN。XIANXINGPOCHANFADIERSHIERTIAOSUIRANYEGUIDINGZHAIQUANRENKEYIQINGQIUFAYUANGENGHUANGUANLIREN,DANGAIGUIZEJIMEIYOUGUIDINGGUANLIRENGENGHUANDETIAOJIAN,YEMEIYOUGUIDINGGENGHUANGUANLIRENDECHENGXU,ERGUANLIRENBENSHENYOUSHIFAYUANJUEDINGDE,YINCISHIJIANZHONGYEJIUXIANYOUGUANLIRENBEIGENGHUANDESHILI。

   (2)ZAIZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIMOSHIZHIXIA,ZHAIQUANRENNENGGOUZAIMOUGEPOCHANZICHENGXUDETUIJINZAOYUZUAISHIZUOCHUSHISHIDEBIANHUA。POCHANANJIANYUMINSHISUSONGANJIANBUTONG,HOUZHECHUFEICHUXIANTEBIEDEFADINGSHIYOU,YIBANSHIBUDEQINGYIBIANGENGCHENGXUDE,JISHIBIANGENG,YEWUFEISHIJIANGJIANYICHENGXUZHUANHUANWEIPUTONGCHENGXU,JINCIERYI。DANSHIPOCHANANJIANCONGDANGSHIRENXIANGFAYUANTICHUSHENQINGDENEIYIKEQI,JIUJINGDUIZHAIWURENSHICAIQUQINGSUANCHENGXU、ZHONGZHENGCHENGXUHAISHIZUIZHONGZAIZHAIQUANRENHEZHAIWURENZHIJIANDACHENGHEJIE,JIEGUOWANGWANGSHIWUFAYULIAODE,YINCIYINGDANGYUNXUZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANFAXIADESANGEZICHENGXUZAOYUPINGJINGSHI,GENJUSHICHANGXINGSHIDEBIANHUASHISHIDIJINXINGQIEHUAN。POCHANANJIANDEFUZAXING,JIUZAIYUSHICHANGXINGSHIQIANBIANWANHUA,YAOGENSUISHICHANGXINGSHI,JIUYINGDANGYUNXUZAIPOCHANZICHENGXUQIEHUANSHIYOUYIDINGDELINGHUOXING。QIANSHUANLIZHONG,GUANLIRENSHIJISHANGYIJINGWUFAZAIZHONGZHENGCHENGXUZHIXIAHENHAODIJIEJUEANJIAN,CISHIYOUQIAFENGYOUXINDETOUZIZHEYUANYIDUIYUANYOUZHIXIANGMUZICHANJINXINGSHOUGOU,ZHEIQISHISHIJIEJUEBENANDEYIGELIANGHAOQIJI。DANSHIHENYIHAN,GUANLIRENHEFAYUANHAOBURONGYIZAIZHAIQUANRENDEFANFUYAOQIUZHIXIA,JIANGYUANYISHIYONGDEPOCHANQINGSUANCHENGXUGAIWEIZHONGZHENGCHENGXU,XIANZAIZHAIQUANRENYOUTURANTICHUYAOHUIDAOQINGSUANCHENGXUSHANGLAI,ZAIGUANLIRENHEFAYUANKANLAIZHEIWUYIYUZHAIQUANRENDEWULIQUNAO,YINCIZHAIQUANRENDESHENQINGYEJIUZIRANERRANDIBEIBOHUILE。DANXIXIANGYIXIA,ZHAIQUANRENTICHUDESHENQINGQISHICAISHIZHENZHENGFUHESHICHANGXINGSHIDE,ZHAIQUANRENDESHENQINGZHISUOYIBEIBOHUI,SHIJISHANGSHIYINWEIZHAIQUANRENDUISHICHANGDEXIUJUEYAOBIFAYUANHEGUANLIRENLINGMINDEDUO。ZAIZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIMOSHIZHIXIA,ZHAIQUANRENNENGGOUZAIMOUGECHENGXUYUZUSHIDUIPOCHANZICHENGXUJINXINGLINGHUODEQIEHUAN,ZHEIJISHUNYINGLESHICHANGLINGHUODUOBIANDEJIAOBU,YEWEIZHAIQUANRENQUANLIDEJIUJIKAIPILEXINDETIANDI。

   (3)ZAIZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIMOSHIZHIXIA,ZHAIQUANRENZAITONGYIPOCHANZICHENGXUZHONGKEYIXUANZECAIQUBUTONGDEFANGSHILAIBAOHUZIJIDELIYI。ZAIZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIMOSHIZHIXIA,ZHAIQUANRENBUJINKEYITONGGUOZIZHUQIEHUANPOCHANZICHENGXULAIXUNQIUZISHENLIYIDEZUIDAHUA,TONGSHIYEKEYIZAITONGYIPOCHANZICHENGXUZHONGXUNQIUZUIJIAFANGSHIQUZHUIQIUZISHENLIYIDEMANZU。ZAIQIANSHUANLIZHONG,ZHONGZHENGFANGANDEZHIDINGZHESHIGUANLIREN,ZHAIQUANRENZAIZHIDINGZHONGZHENGFANGANSHIBINGMEIYOURENHEDEFAYANQUAN,SUIRANZHAIQUANRENYEKEYIDUIZHONGZHENGFANGANTICHUZIJIDEJIANYIHEYIJIAN,DANSHIYIGEWANQUANYOUFAYUANXUANPINDEGUANLIRENSHIBUKENENGCHONGFENZUNZHONGZHAIQUANRENDEYIJIANDE。ZAIWOGUOPOCHANSIFASHIJIANZHONG,WULUNSHIQINGSUANHEZHONGZHENG,DOUCUNZAIZHEFANGSHIDANYI、MOSHIJIANGHUADEWENTI,ZHEIYUZHAIQUANRENBUNENGGOUHENHAODIJIERUDAOCHENGXUZHONGLAISHIYOUHENDALIANXIDE。ERZAIZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIMOSHIZHIXIA,ZHAIQUANRENSHICHENGXUDEZHUDAOZHE,ZHENGRUBIZHEQIANWENSUOSHU,ZHAIQUANRENLINGMINDESHICHANGXIUJUEJIANGSHIQIZAICHULIWENTISHIJUBEIGENGQIANGDELINGHUOXING,ZHAIQUANRENBAOHUZISHENLIYIDEFANGSHIYEHUIGENGJIAFENGFU。

    SAN、POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEJIBENBIAOXIAN

   (YI)POCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEZHUDAOQUAN

    POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEJISHISHIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDUIYUPOCHANCHENGXUDEZHUDAOQUAN。BIZHERENWEI,POCHANZHAIQUANRENSHIFOUYINGDANGDUIPOCHANCHENGXUXIANGYOUZHUDAOQUAN,YINGDANGCONGMINSHISUSONGLILUNJIEYANJIUDUONIANDEMINSHISUSONGMOSHITANQI。MINSHISUSONGMOSHISHIDUIMINSHISUSONGCHENGXUHEZHIDUYIJISUSONGYUNXINGTEZHENGSUOZUODEYIZHONGHONGGUANSHANGDEGAIKUO,SHIJIEJUEMINSHIZHENGYIDEZONGTISHANGDESUSONGJIEGOU。[19]YIBANLAISHUO,MINSHISUSONGLILUNZHONGDESUSONGMOSHIKEYIFENWEILIANGLEI,JIYIYINGMEIFAXIWEIDAIBIAODEDANGSHIRENZHUYIMOSHIHEYIDALUFAXIWEIDAIBIAODEZHIQUANZHUYIMOSHI。ZAIDANGSHIRENZHUYISUSONGMOSHIZHIXIA,FAYUANDUIANJIANDESHENLISHIXIANGDUIBEIDONGDE,ZHANGKONGZHENGGESUSONGJINCHENGDESHIDANGSHIRENZISHEN。ERZAIZHIQUANZHUYISUSONGMOSHIZHIXIA,FAYUANZAIANJIANSHENLIGUOCHENGZHONGCHUYUXIANGDUIZHUDONGDEDIWEI,XIANGYOUJIAODADEZHUDAOQUAN,BINGBANYANZHESUSONGZHIHUIZHEDEJIAOSE。WOGUODEMINSHISUSONGJIUJINGYINGDANGCAIQUNAZHONGMOSHI?MINSHISUSONGLILUNJIEDEFENQIJIAODA,YOURENRENWEIJIYUCHUFENYUANZEHEBIANLUNYUANZEZAISUSONGJILISHANGDEJIBENCHANSHI,WOGUOYINGDANGGOUJIANDANGSHIRENZHUYIDESUSONGMOSHI;[20]YEYOURENRENWEIYINGDANG“YIWOGUOFALVWENHUABEIJINGWEIJICHU,YIDALUFAXIZHIQUANZHUYISUSONGMOSHIWEIJIBENCANZHAOXI,SHIDANGJIEJIAN、XISHOUYINGMEIDANGSHIRENZHUYIMOSHIZHONGDEHELIYINSU…ERGOUJIANFUHEWOGUOGUOQINGDEZHIQUANZHUYISUSONGMOSHI。”[21]DANSHIBUGUANZENMEYANG,LIANGZHONGFENQIDEGUANDIANZHONGYOUYIDIANSHIGONGTONGDE,NEIJIUSHIWULUNZAINAZHONGSUSONGMOSHIZHIXIA,DOUYINGDANGZUNZHONGDANGSHIRENDENENGDONGZUOYONGHECHUFENQUAN,SHIDANGSHIRENDECHUFENQUANGOUCHENGDUIFAYUANSHENPANQUANDEYOUXIAOZHIYUE。

    SUSONGLILUNJIE、LIFAJIEHESIFASHIWUJIEZAIZUNZHONGHETISHENGDANGSHIRENCHUFENQUANDEDAOLUSHANGYIZHIMEIYOUTINGXIAGUOJIAOBU,POCHANFAZUOWEIMINSHISUSONGFADETEBIEFA,POCHANCHENGXUZUOWEIMINSHISUSONGCHENGXUTEBIECHENGXUZHONGDEYIZHONG,CONGQIJIAOZHIMINSHISUSONGFACUNZAIGENGDUODESHICHANGJINGJISHUXINGDEJIAODUCHUFA,GENGYINGDANGDUIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDEZHUDAOQUANYUYIMINGQUEQUELI。BIZHERENWEI,POCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZIZHIXIA,DUIPOCHANCHENGXUDEZHUDAOQUANJIZHONGTIXIANZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:

    QIYI,POCHANCHENGXUDEKAIQIHEZHONGJIEYINGDANGYOUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENQIJUEDINGZUOYONG。POCHANCHENGXUDEKAIQIYIWEIZHEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENKEYIXUNQIUYONGPOCHANCHENGXULAIJIUJIZIJIDEQUANLI。RUGUOLIANZHEIMEJIANDANDEYAOQIUDOUDABUDAO,NEIMEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDECHENGXUZIZHIYEJIUGENBENWUCONGTANQI。SUIRANPOCHANZHAIWURENYEYOUQUANSHENQINGPOCHANCHENGXU,DANSHIPOCHANZHAIWURENSHENQINGPOCHANYOUQISHISHENQINGPOCHANZHONGZHENGHEPOCHANHEJIESHI,JUNYINGDANGJINGDEZHAIQUANRENDETONGYI,RUGUOZHAIQUANRENDUICIBUYURENKE,NEIME,KONGYOUPOCHANZHAIWURENDESHENQINGYEDENGYU“TITOUTIAOZIYITOURE”,SHICHANGBUQIHOUXUDEPOCHANCHENGXUZHEIBUDAXIDE。CHULEJUEDINGPOCHANCHENGXUSHIFOUKAIQIZHIWAI,POCHANZHAIQUANRENHAIYINGDANGYOUQUANJUEDINGPOCHANCHENGXUSHIFOUZHONGJIE,YOUQISHIDUIYUZHONGZHENGCHENGXUERYAN,BINGBUSHIZHONGZHENGJIHUATONGGUOJIUKEYIWANSHIDAJILE,YINWEIXIANGYAOWANJIUYIGEQIYE,ZHEIZHIBUGUOSHIWANLIZHANGZHENGDEDIYIBU。DUIYUDUOSHUZHONGZHENGANJIANLAISHUO,QIYEDEHOUXUJINGYINGZHUANGKUANGHEZHONGZHENGJIHUAZHIXINGQINGKUANGRENGRANXUYAOPOCHANGUANLIREN、ZHAIQUANRENHUIYIDEJIANDUNAIZHIZHIJIEJIESHOUQIGUANLI。XIANXINGPOCHANFADIBASHILIUTIAOJIANGFAYUANPIZHUNZHONGZHENGJIHUASHIWEIZHONGZHENGCHENGXUDEZHONGJIE,XIANRANSHIBUTUODANGDE。

    QIER,FAYUANXUYIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDESHENQING,FANGNENGJUEDINGPOCHANFAXIAGEPOCHANZICHENGXUDEXIANGHUZHUANHUAN。ZAIXIANXINGPOCHANFAZHONG,CUNZAIHEJIE、ZHONGZHENG、QINGSUANSANGEZICHENGXU,ZAIMOUYICHENGXUZOUBUTONGSHI,ZICHENGXUZHIJIANBIANKEYIHUXIANGZHUANHUAN。DANZHEIYIZHUANHUANYINGDANGYOUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENTICHUSHENQING,ERBUNENGJINJINPINGJIEFAGUANDEGERENPANDUANLAIJUEDING。BIJINGFAGUANBUSHICHIZHASHANGJIEDEJINGYING,MEIYOUNENGLIYEBUXUYAOYOUQILAIPANDUANZHAIWURENQIYESHIFOUBUNENGZHONGZHENGERYINGDANGJINRUQINGSUANHUANJIE。ZAIZHEIYIDIANSHANG,XIANXINGPOCHANFADEGUIDINGSHIHELIDE,DANSHIZAISIFASHIJIANZHONG,ZHENGFUBUMENQUECHANGCHANGYUEZUDAIPAO,YIZHONGZHENGWUWANGWEIYOU,BIPOGUANLIRENTIJIAOWUFAZHONGZHENGGUERQINGQIUQINGSUANDESHENQING。ZHEISHIJISHANGSHIDUIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZHUDAOQUANDEBIANXIANGGANYU。ZAIMEIGUOPOCHANFAZHONG,POCHANZHAIQUANRENKEYIZIYOUXUANZEGENJUMEIGUOPOCHANFADI7ZHANG、DI11ZHANGHUOZHEDI13ZHANGJINXINGQINGSUAN、ZHONGZHENGHUOZHEZHAIWUZHONGZU,JIUSHIJIYUQIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDETEDIAN。[22]

    QISAN,POCHANZHAIQUANRENYOUQUANJUEDINGPOCHANCHENGXUDEGONGZUONEIRONGHEMUDE。POCHANZHAIQUANRENJIRANDUIPOCHANCHENGXUXIANGYOUZHUDAOQUAN,JIUYINGDANGNENGGOUJUEDINGSHIJIPOCHANANJIANZHONGPOCHANCHENGXUDEGONGZUONEIRONGHEMUDE。TONGYANGSHIQIYEZHONGZHENG,YOUXIEZHONGZHENGSHIWEILEBAOLIUQIYEZIZHI,BINGZAIBOLIZHAIWURENQITACAICHANHEZHAIWUHOUJIANGQIYEZHUANMAIDISANFANG;YOUXIEZHONGZHENGSHIWEILEBAOCHIQIYESHANGJUYOUJINGZHENGLIDENEIBUFENJINGYING,JIANGQIYEZUOWEISHIYEJINGYINGTIZHUANMAIJIZHANLVETOUZIZHE;YOUXIEZHONGZHENGSHIWEILEJIQIYEJIXUSHUXUEYIBANGZHUQIWANCHENGBIXUYOUQIWANCHENGDEJINGYINGXIANGMU(BIRUFANGDICHANKAIFAXIANGMU);HAIYOUYIXIEZHONGZHENGSHIWEILENENGGOUZHENZHENGWANJIUQIYE,SHIQIHUODEXINSHENG。MEIYIZHONGZHONGZHENGDEMUDEBUYI,POCHANGUANLIRENGONGZUODENEIRONGYEJIUBUJINXIANGTONG。ZHEIZHONGDUIPOCHANCHENGXUGONGZUONEIRONGHEMUDEDEJUEDINGQUANYINGDANGJIAOYOUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENYIJUJINGJIXINGSHIHEQIYEZHUANGKUANGDUZIZHUXINGSHI,ERBUSHIYOUFAYUANSHUOLESUAN。

    QISI,FAYUANTEBIEZHUZHONGPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEZUOYONG,BINGYIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDEZUOYONGZUOWEIYIKAO。POCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGZHANJUZHUDAOQUAN,BUGUANGBIAOXIANWEIQISHIZHISHANGKEYIXINGSHIDEQUANLI,HAIYINGDANGBIAOXIANWEIFAYUANDUIQIDEZHONGSHI。ZHENGGECHENGXUJIRANSHIYOUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZUOWEIZHUDAO,QIZUOYONGYEJIUYINGDANGSHIJUZUQINGZHONGDE。RUGUOPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGXIANGYOUDEGEZHONGGUANJIANXINGQUANLISHIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZHUDAOQUANDEWUSHITIXIAN,NEIMEFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENDUIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDEZUNZHONGYIJIDUIQIZUOYONGDEZHONGSHIZESHIQIWUXUYIMIANDETIXIAN。

   (ER)POCHANZHAIQUANRENDUIPOCHANCHENGXUSHIXIANGJISHITISHIXIANGDEGUANGFANJUECEQUAN

    POCHANZHAIQUANRENDUIPOCHANCHENGXUSHIXIANGNAIZHISHITISHIXIANGDEJUECEQUANSHIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEQUANLIBAOZHANG。POCHANZHAIQUANRENYAOZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGNENGGOUFAHUIZIZHIZUOYONG,JIUBIXUXIANGYOUGUANGFANDEJUECEQUAN。ZHEIZHONGJUECEQUANBUJINJINSHIZHIDUISHITISHIXIANGDEJUECE,GENGJIAZHONGYAODESHIDUICHENGXUSHIXIANGDEJUECE。XUZHICHENGXUDEZOUXIANGHECHENGXUDEFAZHANNAISHIJUEDINGPOCHANZHAIQUANRENSHITIQUANLIZUIZHONGSHIFOUNENGGOUDEDAOJIUJIDEGUANJIAN。ZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONG,POCHANZHAIQUANRENDESHITIQUANLIYIJUZHAIQUANDESHENBAOHEQUERENYIJINGSHISHIZAIZAIDIBEIQUEDINGXIALAI,ERPOCHANZHAIQUANRENNENGGOUJIEZHUPOCHANCHENGXUHUODEDUODACHENGDUDEQUANLIJIUJIQUESHIYIGEWEIZHISHU,ZHEIGEWEIZHISHUZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGJIESHIDEDAXIAO,XIYOUPOCHANZHAIWURENDECAICHANHEJINGYINGZHUANGKUANG、SHICHANGDEXINGSHIBIANHUAHEPOCHANCHENGXUDEBAOHULIDULAIJUEDING。QIANLIANGZHESHIKEGUANCUNZAIZHEDE,WUFATONGGUOPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDEZIZHUXINGLAIJIAYIGAIBIAN,ERHOUZHEZESHIKEYIYOUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENTONGGUOKEXUEHELIDEZUOWEILAICHANSHENGJIJIZUOYONGDE。DANGRAN,WULUNSHICHENGXUSHIXIANGJUECEQUANHAISHISHITISHIXIANGJUECEQUAN,BINGBUYIDINGPAICHIFAYUANDESHENHEHECAIDING。POCHANZHAIQUANRENDEYIBUFENJUECEKEYIYOUQIYIJUZIJIDEYISIDULIZUOCHU,DANYEYOUYIXIEJUECEZAIZUOCHUZHIHOUHAIXUYAODEDAOFAYUANDESHENCHABINGJINGFAYUANZUIZHONGCAIDINGHOUFANGKESHENGXIAO,DANFAYUANDESHENCHAHECAIDINGYINGDANGGENJUFADINGDETIAOJIANHEBIAOZHUNLAIJINXING,FAYUANBUJINBUNENGMANGMUDIFOUJUEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDEJUECE,GENGBUNENGZAIFOUJUEZHIHOUDAITIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENJINXINGJUECE。BIZHERENWEI,ZAIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIZHIXIA,POCHANZHAIQUANRENSUOXIANGYOUDEGUANGFANDECHENGXUSHIXIANGHESHITISHIXIANGJUECEQUANZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEI:

    QIYI,POCHANZHAIQUANRENYOUQUANXUANZEPOCHANGUANLIRENBINGJUEDINGPOCHANGUANLIRENDEBAOCHOU。POCHANZHAIQUANRENSUIRANYOUQUANZHUDAOZHENGGEPOCHANCHENGXU,DANQIBIXUYILAIPOCHANGUANLIRENLAIJINXING。POCHANGUANLIRENZAIZHENGGEPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDUIZHAIWURENCAICHANDEBAOGUAN、QINGLI、BIANJIAHEFENPEISHIXIANGFANGMIAN,ZAIDUIPOCHANZHAIWURENDEYINGYEGUANLI、HETONGLVXINGHESHIWUTONGCHOUFANGMIAN,ZAIDUIPOCHANSUSONGHEZHAIQUANRENNEIBU、ZHAIQUANRENYUZHAIWURENZHIJIAN、ZHAIQUANRENHEFAYUANJIZHENGFUBUMENZHIJIANDEXIEDIAOFANGMIAN,JUNCHENGDANZHEXIANGDANGJIANJUDEGONGZUORENWU。POCHANGUANLIRENDEGONGZUOBIAOXIANSHIFOUCHENGZHI,YEJUEDINGLEPOCHANCHENGXUDEZUIZHONGJIEGUO。YINCI,XUANRENYIGERANGPOCHANZHAIQUANRENFANGXINDEGUANLIREN,DUIQIGONGZUOBIAOXIANJINXINGKAOHE,MINGQUEQIJIBENDEBAOCHOUHEYEJIJIANGLI,SHIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENBIXUXIANGYOUDEJUECEQUANLI。ZHIYOUYOUBEIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENXUANCHUBINGYOUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENJUEDINGXINCHOU,POCHANGUANLIRENCAIHUIZHENXINSHIYIDIDUIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENFUZE,YIXINYIYIWEIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENMOULIYI。ERZAIXIANXINGPOCHANFAZHONG,POCHANGUANLIRENDEXUANZEQUANYIJIQIBAOCHOUDEJUEDINGQUANQUANBUZHANGWOZAIFAYUANSHOULI,BINGQIEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENYOUQUANQINGQIUFAYUANGENGHUANGUANLIREN,SUIRANPOCHANZHAIQUANRENYOUQUANSHENYIPOCHANGUANLIRENDEBAOCHOUFANGAN,DANSHIFAYUANJUEDINGDESHIQINGPOCHANZHAIQUANRENSHIBUHAOWEIAODE,ZHEIYEJIUZAOCHENGLEWOGUOPOCHANSHIJIANZHONGPOCHANGUANLIRENYIWEIYINGHEFAYUANDEBEIDONGJUMIAN。

    QIER,YINGDANGZAIDUOSHUPOCHANANJIANZHONGZUJIANZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUI,YOUQIDAIBIAOQUANTIZHAIQUANRENXINGSHIJIANDU、GUANLIHEYIBANXINGSHIXIANGDEJUECEQUAN。ZAIPOCHANANJIANZHONG,ZHAIQUANRENHUIYIDEZUCHENGRENSHUJIAODUO,HUIYIDEZHAOJIHEZHAOKAIBINGBURONGYI,RANGZHAIQUANRENHUIYIQUJUEDINGPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEYIBANXINGSHIXIANGXIANRANHUIJIANHUANPOCHANCHENGXUDEJINCHENG,GUBINGBUTUODANG。DANSHICONGZHAIQUANRENZHONGXUANJUXIANGYINGDEDAIBIAOZUCHENGPOCHANZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUI,FUYUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIDULIDIAOCHA、PINQINGZHUANYEJIGOUHEGEREN、BIYAOSHIJIEGUANZHAIWURENQIYEDEQUANLI,BINGJIECIRANGPOCHANZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIXINGSHIJIANDU、GUANLIHEYIBANXINGSHIXIANGDEJUECEQUAN,BUJINBUHUIYINGXIANGPOCHANCHENGXUDEJINZHAN,ERQIESHIDUIPOCHANGUANLIRENGONGZUODEYOUYIBUCHONG。XIANXINGPOCHANFASUIRANGUIDINGLEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIZHIDU,DANSHIYOUZAIDILIUSHIJIUTIAOZHONGGUIDINGBUSHELIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIDE,FAYUANKEYIDAIXINGZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUIDEBUFENZHINENGBINGTINGQUPOCHANGUANLIRENDEBAOGAO。JIYUWOGUOPOCHANSIFASHIJIANZHONGCUNZAIZHEJIAODUODEFAYUANGANYU,YINERZAIDUOSHUANJIANZHONGFAYUANBINGBUYUANYIZHUDAOJIANLIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENWEIYUANHUI,CONGERSHIDEGAIJIGOUZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGCHENGWEILEYIZHONGJINCUNZAIYUPOCHANFALIFAZHONGDEBAISHE。

    QISAN,POCHANZHAIQUANRENYOUQUANDULIZHIDING、CANYUZHIDINGYIJISHENYIZHONGZHENGJIHUA、HEJIEXIEYI、ZHAIWURENCAICHANDEGUANLIFANGAN、POCHANCAICHANDEBIANJIAFANGAN、POCHANCAICHANDEFENPEIFANGANDENGYIXILIEGUANXIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENSHIJILIYIDEJUECEFANGAN。XIANXINGPOCHANFADILIUSHIYITIAODIYIKUANDILIUXIANGZHIDISHIXIANGQUESHISHIJIANGQIANSHUJUECEFANGANGUIDINGZAIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENHUIYIDEQUANXIANFANWEINEI,DANSHISUOYONGDEBIAOSHUSHITONGGUOERBUSHISHENYI,GENGBUSHIZHIDING。YEJIUSHISHUO,ZHAIQUANRENHUIYIJINNENGDUIQIANSHUFANGANZUOCHUTONGGUOHUOBUTONGGUODEJUEDING,JIBUNENGYAOQIUXIUGAI,GENGMEIYOUKENENGYOUBUFENZHAIQUANRENNACHUDULIZHIDINGDEFANGANLAIYUGUANLIRENDEFANGANJINXING“PK”,ZHEIYANGYILAI,POCHANZHAIQUANRENSUOWEIDESHITIXINGSHIXIANGJUECEQUANQISHIYIJINGDADAZHEKOU,POCHANZHAIQUANRENTONGGUOQIANSHUFANGANSHIJISHANGYESHIYIZHONGWUNAIDEXUANZE。

   (SAN)POCHANZHAIQUANRENDEZIYOUXIESHANGQUAN

    POCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEZIYOUXIESHANGQUANSHIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDECEMIANTIXIAN。ZAIMINSHISUSONGZHONG,JIYUFAYUANDESUSONGDIAOJIEHUODANGSHIRENDEDUIHUA,KEYIXINGCHENGDIAOJIEHUOHEJIEXIEYI。ZAIPOCHANANJIANZHONG,POCHANZHAIQUANRENCHULEKEYIDULIDIXINGSHIDUIXIANGGUANPOCHANSHIYIDEJUECEQUANWAI,HAIKEBUJINGFAYUANDEZHUCHIERZIXINGYUPOCHANANJIANDEDISANREN、ANWAIRENJIUPOCHANANJIANDECHENGXUSHIYIHESHITISHIYIJINXINGCHONGFENDEXIESHANGHEYUEDING,QIEZUIZHONGYUEDINGDEJIEGUOKEQINGQIUFAYUANQUERENHOUFUZHUSHISHIHUOZHIJIEFUZHUSHISHI。POCHANZHAIQUANRENDEZIYOUXIESHANGQUANBAOZHENGLETAMENNENGGOUYUPOCHANZHAIWURENHEQITASHEANZHUTIZHANKAICHONGFENDEDUIHUAHEXIESHANG,ZHEISHIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIXIADEBIRANYAOQIU。ZAIMEIGUOPOCHANFADI11ZHANGZHONG,YEFUYUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENKEYIZAIFATINGZHUCHIZHIWAIZIXINGXIESHANG,ZHEIBEICHENGWEI“FALVYINYINGXIADECUOSHANG”,YINWEIZHEIZHONGCUOSHANGKEYIRANGPOCHANZHAIQUANRENHEPOCHANZHAIWURENDEDUIHUAGENGJIAZIYOU,ERBUZHIYUSHOUDAOFAYUANLILIANGDESHUFU。[23]

    BIZHERENWEI,POCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEZIYOUXIESHANGQUANZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIRUXIASANGEFANGMIAN:

    QIYI,BIAOXIANZAISHIJIANDEZIYOUXINGSHANG。POCHANZHAIQUANRENYUPOCHANZHAIWUREN、QITAPOCHANSHEANRENZHIJIANDETANPAN、DUIHUAHEYUEDINGYINGDANGKEYIZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDERENYIJIEDUANJINXING。POCHANZHAIQUANRENYUQIANSHURENDENGZHIJIANSUOJINXINGDEXIESHANGDUIHUABINGBUYINGDANGZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGSUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYIERBEIXIANZHI。SHICHANGXINGSHIDEBIANHUASHIDUOYANGDE,ZHIQIANSUOZUOCHUDEJUEDINGBINGBUYIDINGZAIHOUXUJIEDUANYEYIYANGKEXUEHELI,ZHIYAOPOCHANZHAIQUANRENJUEDEYOUBIYAOJINXINGDUIHUAHEXIESHANG,JIUYINGDANGYUNXUQISHISHIDIAOZHENGCELVE。

    QIER,BIAOXIANZAINEIRONGSHANG。POCHANZHAIQUANRENYUPOCHANZHAIWUREN、QITAPOCHANSHEANRENZHIJIANDETANPAN、DUIHUAHEYUEDINGDENEIRONGZHIYAOMEIYOUQINHAIDAORENHEYIFANGDESHIZHILIYI,JIUYINGDANGBEIFAYUANSUOZHUNXUHEZUNZHONG。JISHIZHEIZHONGTANPAN、DUIHUAHEYUEDINGZAINEIRONGSHANGSHIYIFANGLIYISHOUDAOSUNSHI,DANZHIYAOSHOUSUNYIFANGJIYUZIYUANERRENKEZHEIYANGDENEIRONG,YEBUXUYAOBEIFAYUANSUOJINZHI。DANGRAN,RUGUOPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZIYOUXIESHANGDEJIEGUOQINHAIDAOSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI,NEIMEFAYUANDUIQIXIESHANGJIEGUOHAISHIXIANGYOUFOUJUEQUANDE。

    QISAN,BIAOXIANZAIXIAOLISHANG。POCHANZHAIQUANRENYUPOCHANZHAIWUREN、QITAPOCHANSHEANRENDETANPAN、DUIHUAHEYUEDINGDEJIEGUOKEYIZHIJIEFUZHUSHISHIHUOZHEJINGFAYUANQUERENHOUYUYISHISHI。POCHANZHAIQUANRENXUYAOJINXINGZIYOUXIESHANG,GENBENMUDESHIXIESHANGDEJIEGUONENGGOUDEDAOLUOSHI,FOUZEXIESHANGXINGCHENGDESHUMIANYUEDINGDENGYUFEIZHIYIZHANG,YEJIUMEIYOUSHENMEDADEZUOYONG。FAYUANYAOZUNZHONGPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDEXIESHANGJIEGUO,JIUYINGDANGBAOZHENGXIESHANGJIEGUODELUOSHI。

   (SI)POCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEDULIXING

    POCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEDULIXINGSHIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHIDEYINGYOUBIAOXIAN。YUYIHUAJIEMINSHIJIUFENWEIZHUYAOMUDEDEMINSHISUSONGBUTONG,POCHANANJIANSHIGUANPOCHANQIYEZHIGONGANZHI、DAMIANJIMINJIANJIEDAIDEHUAJIE、DIFANGZHENGFUDEJINGJIFAZHANHEGUOJIACHANYEZHENGCEDENGDUOGEGONGYIXINGHESHEHUIXINGWENTI。ZAIWOGUO,MINSHISUSONGZHONGSHANGCHANGCHANGZAODAOLAIZIXIANGGUANFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENDEBUDANGGANYU,ERZAIBENSHENJIUSHEJIGONGYIWENTIHESHEHUIWENTIDEPOCHANANJIANZHONG,LAIZIFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENDEGANYUGENGSHIYINWEIDAZHE“WEIWEN”DEQIHAOERBIANDEMINGZHENGYANSHUN。DANSHI,LAIZIFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENDEGANYUZAINEIRONGSHANGBINGBUJIANDEYOUDUOMEGAOMING,ZAIXIAOGUOSHANGYEBUJIANDEYOUDUOMELIANGHAO,DAOSHIGUOJIAGANYUZHONGZHENGFUBUMENHEFAYUANSUOBANYANDEBAOMUJIAOSERANGPOCHANZHAIQUANREN、POCHANQIYEZHIGONG、POCHANQIYEYIJIQITAXIANGGUANZHUTICHANSHENGLEYANZHONGDE“DENGKAOYAO”DEYILAIXINLI。YINCI,ZAIJIANCHIYISHICHANGHUAWEIDAOXIANGDEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZIZHIZHIXIA,BIXUDUJUELAIZIFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENDEGUODUGANYUXINGWEI。DANGPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGCHUYUDULIDIWEIZHISHI,JIUSHIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENHUIGUILIXINGZHIRI。

    BIZHERENWEI,POCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEDULIXINGZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIRUXIALIANGGEFANGMIAN:

    YIFANGMIAN,POCHANZHAIQUANRENZAIZHUDAOPOCHANCHENGXU、JUEDINGZHONGYAOSHIXIANGSHI,KEYIPAICHULAIZIFAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENDEGANYUYIJIQITADISANRENDEGANRAO。POCHANZHAIQUANRENKEYIZAIPOCHANANJIANBANLIGUOCHENGZHONGPINQINGXIANGYINGDEZHUANYEJIGOUYIBIANDUIQIJUECEZUOCHUZHUANMENDEFENXIBINGTICHUYIJIAN,YEKEYITONGGUOJITIWEIRENPOCHANGUANLIRENDEFANGFALAIWANCHENGPOCHANCHENGXUZHONGDEZHUYAOGONGZUO。DANSHIQIANZHEZHISHIXIANGDANGYUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENPINQINGDEGUWEN,HOUZHEJINJINXIANGDANGYUPOCHANZHAIQUANRENPINQINGDEZHIYEJINGLIREN,ZUIZHONGJIAOYIDEJUECEZHERENGRANSHIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZISHEN。WULUNFAYUAN、ZHENGFUBUMENHAISHIQITADISANREN,DOUBUNENGZAIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENZUOCHUJUECESHI“BANGJIA”POCHANZHAIQUANRENDEYIYUAN,GENGBUNENGTONGGUOBUJIYUXIEZHUHUOZHEKEYIJINXINGDIAONANLAIQIANGPOPOCHANZHAIQUANRENYINGHETAMENDEYISI。ZAISHENYIHEBIAOJUEXIANGGUANDESHITIXINGFANGANSHI,POCHANZHAIQUANRENZHINENGSHIJIYULIXINGDEFENXIERZUOCHUDUIZISHENLIYIZUIJIADEXUANZE。

    LINGYIFANGMIAN,MIANDUISHEJIZHONGDASHEHUIXINGHEGONGYIXINGWENTISHI,FAYUANHEZHENGFUBUMENBIXUJIEZHUZHUANYEJIGOUHEZHUANYERENSHIDELILIANG,ZHIDINGFUHEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENGENBENLIYIXUQIUDEFANGAN,YILIFUREN,ERBUSHIYILIFUREN。ZAIQIANSHUDONGXINGHANGKONGPOCHANANZHONG,MIANDUIPOCHANZHAIQUANRENYICIYOUYICIDEZHONGZHENGSHENQING,WULUNWUHANSHIZHENGFUHEWUHANSHIZHONGYUANSHIFOUJUEDEZIJIJUEDINGDEPOCHANQINGSUANDAOLUGENGSHENGYICHOU,DOUBUNENGYIANLIZHONGZHEIYANGBADAODEFANGSHILAIHUIJUEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENDEQINGQIU。2010NIAN1YUE,YAZHOUZUIDA、SHIJIEDISANDAHANGKONGGONGSIRIBENHANGKONGXIANGRIBENFAYUANSHENQINGPOCHANBAOHU,YOUYURIBENHANGKONGPOCHANDUIRIBENHANGKONGYE、RIBENJINGJIYIJIRIBENSHEHUIZAOCHENGDECHONGJILISHIZAIGUOYUJUDA,RIBENZHENGFUSUIJUEDINGQIANGYINGCHASHOURIBENHANGKONGPOCHANZHONGZHENGSHIYI。DANSHI,RIBENZHENGFUBINGMEIYOUXIANGWOGUOYOUDEZHENGFUBUMENSUOZUODENEIYANGPAICHUZHONGZHENGSHIWUXIAOZUDUIQIYEJINGYINGGUANLIZHISHOUHUAJIAO,ERJINJINSHIPINQINGLERIBENDE“JINGYINGZHISHEN”、JINGCIJITUANDONGSHIZHANGDAOSHENGHEFUXIANSHENGCHURENRIBENHANGKONGDEDONGSHIZHANG。DAOSHENGHEFUXIEJINGCIJITUANLINGLIANGWEIDONGSHISHANGRENZHIHOU,YITIGAOQIYENINGJULIHETISHENGZHENGGUICAIPIAORUANJIAN2020ZHILIANGWEIMUBIAO,DUIRIBENHANGKONGJINXINGLEDADAOKUOFUDEGAIGE,ZUIZHONGJINYONGYINIANSHIJIANJIURANGRIBENHANGKONGNIUKUIWEIYING,BINGJINYONGLIANGNIANBANJIUZHONGXINSHANGSHI,DAPOLERIBENQIYEZUIDUANZHONGZUSHANGSHIDESHIJIANJILU。[24]ZAIRIBENHANGKONGPOCHANZHONGZHENGGUOCHENGZHONG,GONGSIDEPOCHANZHAIQUANRENYIZHIBAOCHIZHELIZHIHEDULI,SHIRIBENZHENGFUPINYONGDEDAOSHENGHEFUXIANSHENGZAIPOCHANZHONGZHENGZHONGDEWANMEIBIAOXIANDADONGLEPOCHANZHAIQUANREN,POCHANZHAIQUANRENBINGMEIYOUYINWEIRIBENZHENGFUDEGANYUERSANGSHIQIDULIDIWEI。


    [1] LIUMIN: 《LUNCHENGXUZIZHIYUSHENPANQUANYUNXINGJIZHIGAIGE》,ZAI《ZHENGFALUNCONG》2017NIANDI3QI,NEIRONGXIANGSIDEGUANDIANHAIKEJIANCHENGRONGRONG: 《LUNCHENGXUZIZHI——YIMINSHISUSONGFAWEIDUIXIANG》,NANJINGSHIFANDAXUESHUOSHILUNWEN,2016NIAN5YUE。

    [2] WUZEYONG: 《CONGCHENGXUBENWEIDAOCHENGXUZIZHI——YILUMANDEFALVZIZHILILUNWEIJICHU》,ZAI《FALVKEXUE》2004NIANDI4QI。

    [3] CANJIANXUEPENGQI: 《LUNMINSHISUSONGZHONGDANGSHIRENDECHENGXUXUANZEQUAN》,LIAONINGDAXUESHUOSHILUNWEN,2015NIAN5YUE。

    [4] ZOUHAILIN: 《WOGUOXINPOCHANFA(CAOAN)YUZHAIQUANRENZIZHI》,ZAI《FAXUEJIA》2005NIANDI2QI。

    [5] CHICIGUANDIANDEZHUZUORU: LIYONGJUNZHU: 《POCHANFA——LILUNYUGUIFANYANJIU》,ZHONGGUOZHENGFADAXUECHUBANSHE2013NIANBAN,DI36YE;XUDEFENGZHU: 《POCHANFALUN——JIESHIYUGONGNENGBIJIAODESHIJIAO》,BEIJINGDAXUECHUBANSHE2015NIANBAN,DI85YE。HENYIHAN,ZHEIXIEXUEZHESUIRANJIANGZHAIQUANRENZIZHISHIWEIPOCHANFADEYIXIANGZHONGYAOYUANZE,DANSHIQUEMEIYOUDUIZHAIQUANRENZIZHIZUOCHUDINGYI。

    [6] SUIRANCONGCHUNCUIDEWENZILUOJICENGMIANLAIKAN,“ZHAIQUANRENZIZHI”SIYINGSHI“ZHAIQUANRENCHENGXUZIZHI”DESHANGWEIGAINIAN,ZUOWEIFANWEISIYINGGENGDA,YEJITONGSHIBAOKUOLEPOCHANSHITIXINGSHIXIANGHEPOCHANCHENGXUXINGSHIXIANG,DANZAIJUTILIJIEYUSHIJIBAWOCENGMIAN,ZEJINZHIDUIPOCHANSHITIXINGSHIXIANGDEZIZHI。

    [7] TONGJINLINGZHU: 《POCHANFAYUANLISHIYIYUSHIJIANSHIYONG》,LIAONINGDAXUECHUBANSHE2011NIANBAN,DI21YE。

    [8] CANJIAN《ZHONGGUODANSHENGXINDEJINGJIXIANFA》,http://www.southcn.com/finance/financenews/guoneicaijing/200608310572.htm。

    [9] SHUJULAIYUANYUBEIJINGSIYUANJIANBINGYUPOCHANZIXUNSHIWUSUO,http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_616dfae10100hmgk.html。

    [10] XIANGJIAN[YING]Charlie King: China’s New Law on Enterprise: More certainty on China bankruptcies,International Financial Law Review. Feb2009.

    [11] XIANGJIANLIZANYU: 《YIZONGPOCHANANJIANXIADEAODALIYAPOCHANCHENGXUJIEGOU》,ZAI《ZHONGGUOJINGMAO》2010NIANDI3QI。

    [12] GUANYUDONGXINGHANGKONGPOCHANDEXIANGGUANBAODAO,XIANGJIANYUDAWEI: 《XIN<POCHANFA>WEIHEWEINENGJIUSHUDONGXINGHANGKONG》,ZAI《FARENZAZHI》2009NIANDI10QI。

    [13] XIANGJIAN[MEI]Martin A.Frey、Phyllis Hurley Frey、Sidney K.Swinson,Introduction To Bankruptcy Law,Delmar Press, 2006. p506.

    [14] XIANGJIAN[MEI]Martin A.Frey、Phyllis Hurley Frey、Sidney K.Swinson,Introduction To Bankruptcy Law,Delmar Press, 2006. p508.

    [15] XIANGJIANHANJUN、CHENZHIWU: 《CONGMEIGUOHANGKONGGONGSIDEKUNJINGKANMEIGUODEPOCHANBAOHUZHIDU》,ZAI《CHENGRENGAOJIAOXUEKAN》2005NIANDI6QI。

    [16] XIANGJIAN《QUANGUOFAYUANPOCHANSHENPANGONGZUOHUIYI: JINNIANSHOULIPOCHANANJIAN8984JIAN》,http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzI2OTE3MjAzMg==&mid=2650602301&idx=1&sn=d18ccfd78930a74a85a9e51090e29906&chksm=f2ec3712c59bbe0476a6b6f02e0ae049e1d269408a34f09c78d532a1afca0bea7cd485f00842&mpshare=1&scene=1&srcid=0125BCbNYNrUGA0iHCfBz1YY#rd

    [17] 数据来源:正规彩票软件2020_2020十大正规彩票|信誉平台

    [18] BENANLIWEIBIZHEZUOWEIJIANZHILVSHICANYUBANLIDEANJIAN,YINANJIANSHANGWEIBANLIJIESHU,CICHUYINQUANJIANJUTICHUCHU。

    [19] CANJIANZHAOGANG、LIUXUEZAI: 《CONGFALVWENHUABEIJINGKANWOGUOMINSHISUSONGMOSHIDEXUANZE》,ZAI《WUHANDAXUEXUEBAO》(ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEBAN)1999NIANDI2QI。

    [20] CANJIANFENGKE: 《CONGQUANLIBAOZHANGDAOQUANLIZHIYUE: LUNWOGUOMINSHISUSONGMOSHIZHUANHUANDEQUXIANG》,ZAI《DANGDAIFAXUE》2016NIANDI3QI。

    [21] ZHAOGANG、LIUXUEZAI: 《CONGFALVWENHUABEIJINGKANWOGUOMINSHISUSONGMOSHIDEXUANZE》,ZAI《WUHANDAXUEXUEBAO》(ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEBAN)1999NIANDI2QI。

    [22] XIANGJIAN[MEI]Martin A.Frey、Phyllis Hurley Frey、Sidney K.Swinson,Introduction To Bankruptcy Law,Delmar Press, 2006. p529.

    [23] XIANGJIAN [MEI] Nathalie Martin、Ocean Tama , Inside Bankruptcy Law: What Matters & Why,Aspen Publishers, 2011.p163.

    [24] XIANGJIAN《JIEMIRIHANGDEQISIHUISHENG》,http://www.cannews.com.cn/2015/0813/131458.shtml。

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