正规彩票软件2020

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鐞嗚璋冪爺
论行政行为的成熟性标准
发表时间: 2019-10-15 发布者: Admin 点击率: 1019

ZHEJIANGQINGUOGUANGZHENGGUICAIPIAORUANJIAN2020    TANGJINGYAN

    NEIRONGTIYAO: CONGDANGXIADESIFASHIJIANLAIKAN,XINGZHENGXINGWEIBEIXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENQISUZHIFAYUANDEQINGXINGYUELAIYUEDUO,DANZHEIXIEXINGZHENGXINGWEISHIFOUKESU,GEDIFAYUANZUOFADOUYOUBUTONG,DAOZHISIFAQUEFATONGYIXINGDEQINGKUANG。ERZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGDEFASHENGZHUYAOYUANYUXINGZHENGFAFANGMIANDEFALVGUIFANDEQUESHI,ERZHEIYUXINGZHENGSUSONGFAXUELILUNDEBUCHONGFENMIQIEXIANGGUAN。ZAIYANJIUXINGZHENGGUOCHENGFAXUEDELILUNZHONG,CHENGSHUYUANZEZUIWEIGUANJIAN,YINWEIQIMIAOSHULEXINGZHENGGUOCHENGFAZHANDEJIEDUANYUXINGZHENGXINGWEIKESUXINGDEGUANXI。CHENGSHUYUANZEFAZHANDAOXIANZAI,WOGUOXUESHUJIECHUXIANLELIANGDALEIBIEDEPANDUANBIAOZHUN,JICHENGXUBIAOZHUNHESHIZHIBIAOZHUN。ZAISIFASHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONG,RUHEDUIYUZHEILIANGDABIAOZHUNJINXINGXUANZEHESHIYONG,YIJISHIYONGBIAOZHUNDETIAOJIANHEQINGXING,QIFAXUELILUNYIYIHESIFASHIJIANYIYIDOUSHIXIANERYIJIANDE。

    GUANJIANCI: CHENGSHUYUANZE  SHIZHIBIAOZHUN  CHENGXUBIAOZHUN

    YI、WENTIDETICHU——YIYIGESHIJIANLICHUFA

    (YI)ANLI: SHAOXINGSHIAYEHUAQIGONGSI(YIXIAJIANCHENG“AGONGSI”)SUBZHENGFUYINFANGWUZHENGSHOUQITAXINGZHENGXINGWEIYIAN

    AGONGSIQIANSHENXIYUANMOUSHICHENGQUMEIQIGONGSI,YU1995NIANZHUCECHENGLIZHIJIN,2002NIAN8YUEGAIZHICHENGYOUXIANZERENGONGSI。2017NIANMOUSHICFANGDICHANKAIFAYOUXIANGONGSI(YIXIAJIANCHENG“CGONGSI”)ZAIAGONGSIXICEXINJIANXFANGDICHANXIANGMU。2017NIAN4YUE,AGONGSIYIZAIJIANXXIANGMUYUAGONGSIJIYOUCHUGUANZHIJIANJIANJUWEIDA90MIQIANGZHIYAOQIUWEIYOU,DUOCIXIANGXIANGGUANBUWEIFANYING、TOUSU。2018NIAN11YUE30RI,BZHENGFUZUOCHU《GUANYUGONGBUAGONGSICHUPEIZHANDIKUAIGUOYOUTUDISHANGFANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEIDEGONGGAO》,JUEDINGJIANGAGONGSICHUPEIZHANDIKUAILIEWEIFANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEI。AGONGSIYU2019NIAN1YUE2RIXIANGFAYUANQISUYAOQIUCHEXIAOBZHENGFUZUOCHUDE《GUANYUGONGBUAGONGSICHUPEIZHANDIKUAIGUOYOUTUDISHANGFANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEIDEGONGGAO》。  

    2019NIAN2YUE15RI,FAYUANRENWEI,BEISUGONGGAOBINGFEIZUIZHONGQUEDINGDEFASHENGFALVXIAOLIDEXINGZHENGXINGWEI,DUIAGONGSIQUANLIYIWUSHANGWEICHANSHENGSHIZHIYINGXIANG,AGONGSITIQISUSONGTIAOJIANSHANGWEICHENGSHU,BOHUILEAGONGSIDEQISU。

    (ER)DUISHANGSHUANLIDEJIANYAOFENXI

    FAYUANRENWEIDUIBZHENGFUZUOCHUDE《GUANYUGONGBUAGONGSICHUPEIZHANDIKUAIGUOYOUTUDISHANGFANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEIDEGONGGAO》,XIFEIZUIZHONGQUEDINGDEFASHENGFALVXIAOLIDEXINGZHENGXINGWEI,DUIAGONGSIQUANLIYIWUSHANGWEICHANSHENGSHIZHIYINGXIANG,TIQISUSONGTIAOJIANSHANGWEICHENGSHU。JIEHEBENWENDEZHUTI,BENWENSUOYAOTAOLUNDEWENTIZAIYU: BZHENGFUZUOCHUAGONGSICHUPEIZHANDIKUAILIEWEIFANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEIDEXINGZHENGXINGWEISHIFOUKESU,SHIFOUSHIHEYUJINXINGSIFASHENCHA,SHIXINGZHENGXINGWEIFUHECHENGSHUYUANZEDEYANJIUDUIXIANGHEGUIFANDUIXIANG。

    ER、CHENGSHUYUANZEZAIWOGUOXINGZHENGLIFAZHONGDETIXIAN

    我国的行政诉讼法没有明确规定成熟原则,主要是以法律条文列举和排除的形式确定我国行政行为司法审查的范围,对过程中的行政行为是否可以进行司法审查并没有作出明确的规定。[1]尽管我国行政诉讼法中尽管没有明确的“成熟原则”字样出现,但实际上已间接地有所规定。

    XIANJIN,WOGUOZHUYAOZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIANDUICHENGSHUYUANZEYOUSUOGUIDING:

    DIYI,《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUZHIXING〈ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGFA〉RUOGANWENTIDEJIESHI》ZHONGDIYITIAODIERKUANDI(LIU)XIANGGUIDING: XINGZHENGJIGUANWEIZUOCHUXINGZHENGXINGWEIERSHISHIDEZHUNBEI、LUNZHENG、YANJIU、CENGBAO、ZIXUNDENGGUOCHENGXINGXINGWEI;DI(SHI)XIANGGUIDING: DUIGONGMIN、FARENHUOZHEQITAZUZHIQUANLIYIWUBUCHANSHENGSHIJIYINGXIANGDEXINGWEI,BUSHUYURENMINFAYUANXINGZHENGSUSONGDESHOUANFANWEI。DI(LIU)XIANGJIDI(SHI)XIANGDEGUIDINGTIXIANDESHIXINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUYUANZEDESHIZHIPANDUANBIAOZHUNHECHENGXUPANDUANBIAOZHUNDENEIRONG。

    DIER,ZAIBUMENXINGZHENGFAZHONG: SHOUXIAN,《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLIXINGZHENGXUKEANJIANRUOGANWENTIDEGUIDING》DISANTIAOGUIDING: GONGMIN、FARENHUOZHEQITAZUZHIJINJIUXINGZHENGXUKEGUOCHENGZHONGDEGAOZHIBUZHENGSHENQINGCAILIAO、TINGZHENGDENGTONGZHIXINGWEITIQIXINGZHENGSUSONGDE,RENMINFAYUANBUYUSHOULI,DANDAOZHIXUKECHENGXUDUISHANGSHUZHUTISHISHISHANGZHONGZHIDECHUWAI。KEZHI,DUIYUXINGZHENGXUKEGUOCHENGZHONGDETONGZHIHUOGAOZHIXINGWEI,YUANZESHANGBUKESU,DANYOUGUIDINGLELIWAI,JIRUCHANSHENGLESHISHISHANGDEZHONGJUXING,YINGXIANGDAOLEXIANGDUIRENDEHEFAQUANYI,ZEKESU。ZHEIXIANGGUIDINGJIQUEDINGLEXINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGPANDUANDECHENGXUBIAOZHUN,YOUGUIDINGLEXINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGPANDUANDESHIZHIBIAOZHUN,QIEGUIDINGZAISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,YICHENGXUBIAOZHUNWEIYUANZE,SHIZHIBIAOZHUNWEILIWAI。QICI,《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIXINGZHENGANJIANRUOGANWENTIDEGUIDING》DIERTIAODI(YI)XIANGZEGUIDING:GONGMIN、FARENHUOZHEQITAZUZHIDUIXIALIEXINGWEIBUFUTIQIXINGZHENGSUSONGDE,RENMINFAYUANBUYUSHOULI: (YI)YINSHENQINGNEIRONGBUMINGQUE,XINGZHENGJIGUANYAOQIUSHENQINGRENZUOCHUGENGGAI、BUCHONGQIEDUISHENQINGRENQUANLIYIWUBUCHANSHENGSHIJIYINGXIANGDEGAOZHIXINGWEI;……。SHANGSHUGUIDINGGUIDINGLEBUYINGXIANGSHENQINGRENQUANLIYIWUDEBUZHENGGAOZHIXINGWEIBUKESU。BUZHENGGAOZHI,BINGFEIZUIZHONGDEXINGZHENGCHULIJUEDING,ZHISHIYIGEZHONGJIANJIEDUANDEXINGZHENGXINGWEI,TASHIYIWANCHENGZUIZHONGXINGZHENGXINGWEIERDUIXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENDEJUTIYAOQIU,ZHEIZHONGYAOQIUYESHIJIYUDAZHIXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENDESHENQINGMUDEERCHANSHENGDE,ZHEIZHONGCHULIYEMEIYOUYINGXIANGDANGSHIRENDEQUANLIYIWU,ZHEIJIUDAOZHILEBUZHENGGAOZHIDEBUKESUXINGBUNENG。

    SAN、WOGUOXINGZHENGFALILUNJIEGUANYUXINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUYUANZEDEPANDUANBIAOZHUNDEYANJIU

    我国学者认为行政行为成熟原则,包括了两个判断标准,一是实质标,二是程序标准。前者主要指行政行为是否对相对人的权利义务造成了实际的影响。如行政机关的决定增加了相对人的负担, 限制、减少或剥夺了相对人的权利或利益, 改变了相对人的法律地位等,均视为对相对人产生了实际不利影响。[2]后者主要指须待行政行为发展到最后决定阶段才算成熟。“尽管最后决定作为形式标准受到挑战 ,但仍不失为判断行政行为是否成熟的标准,只是要结合实际情况灵活把握”。[3]这就使得行政行为成熟性判断形成了双重标准。[4]

    SI、XINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGLIANGDAPANDUANBIAOZHUNDESHIYONG

    (YI)YIBILIYUANZEWEIZHIDAO

    “法的目的及任务在于以最少的牺牲与浪费来尽可能多地满足各种相互冲突的利益”。[5]行政行为成熟性的程序判断标准与实质判断标准,不能采取非此即彼的观点,而应以比例原则为指导,在两个标准间找到最佳平衡点。比例原则关注的两大目标分别是行政目标的实现以及保护行政相对人的权利。[6]

    然而,实现行政目标的的前提是行政机关作出行政行为需要的延续性和完整性,这就决定了审判机关如果过早地介入将对行政行为的顺利完成造成一定的阻碍。另一方面,如果以保护行政相对人的权益作为出发点,审判机关缩小行政诉讼的受案范围就不适当。因为“相对方的程序性权利若不和国家权力相结合,往往无法得到保障和实现”。[7]

    因此,行政行为成熟性的程序标准和实体标准的价值在不能都完全实现,就需要进行价值选择。而关于选择的办法,德国法学家阿列克西认为应符合一个“权衡的公式”或权衡原则。[8]具体到本文所要讨论的问题,行政行为成熟性两大判断标准的选择问题的实质在于: 司法机关对行政行为进行司法审查程序的适当时机是什么;从另一个角度来说,即是司法机关对于行政相对人的诉权保护的限度应当是多大。[9]

    (ER)XINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGDECHENGXUBIAOZHUNYUSHIZHIBIAOZHUNGONGTONGJIESHOUBILIYUANZEZHIDAO,YEYINGGAIGEZIYOUQISHIYONGDEFANWEI。

    1.XINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGPANDUANYIBANYOUXIANSHIYONGCHENGXUBIAOZHUN

    司法的谦抑性决定行政行为成熟性判断应以程序标准为优先。为了保障司法权和行政权的相对独立,法院在某个行政行为做出之前通常不会对行政行为施加干涉。然而,行政行为是复杂的,这就让正规彩票软件2020在判断某个行政行为是否为最后决定时带来诸多困扰。根据成熟原则在美国适用的经验,在判断是否为最后决定时应以一个指导性的原则作为参考: 如果法院的审查可能打乱行政机关作出决定的程序,则行政机关还没有作出最后决定。[10]一般来讲,行政机关在实施行政行为过程中的中间性的和程序性的决定,不会被认为是最后决定。当行政机关作出正式的最终的处理决定,并且在最后决定作出后,前述中间性的和程序性的决定将和最后决定一起接受司法审查。

    但是,这种情况存在例外情况,如果这些中间性和程序性的决定是行政机关做出的一个或几个独立的实体的决定,就需要区别,不同情况进行不同对待。如果这些中性的和程序性的决定,在形式上走完了法律规定的所有程序,且己经将行为的处理结果告知了行政相对人,行政机关据此做出了具有一定形式的决定,则可以将其视为最后决定。即使行政机关在某个行政行为的实施过程中程序上有些微的瑕疵,忽略了一些法定的步骤,伹只要出现上述的状况,则仍将这种行政行为作为最后决定,歩骤上的缺失或者程序上的瑕疵是证明行政行为程序违法的证据,但不能据此认为行政行为不成熟。[11]

    2.XINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGPANDUANYINGDANGGENGJIATUCHUSHIZHIBIAOZHUNDESHIYONG

    对成熟标准的认识本身是一个不断发展的过程。在司法实践中 “结合实际情况把握 ”固然没错,但仍须认识标准的发展演变背后所体现的精神实质。这就是,在维护行政权与司法权良性循环, 确保公共利益得以实现的前提下,尽可能地扩大对相对人权利的保护。[12]

    YINCI,ZAISHIYONGCHENGSHUYUANZEDESHIZHIBIAOZHUNHEXINGSHIBIAOZHUNSHI, YINGGENGJIATUCHUSHIZHIBIAOZHUNDESHIYONGFENLIANG,YEJIUSHISHUO,DUIYUXINGZHENGJIGUANDEBULUNSHIZHONGJIANXINGXINGWEI,HAISHIZUIHOUJUEDINGXINGWEI, ZHIYAOSHIYINGXIANGLEXIANGDUIRENDESHITIQUANLIYIWUDE,DOUYINGSHIZUOSHICHENGSHUDEXINGZHENGXINGWEI,DOUYINGSHUYURENMINFAYUANDESHOUANFANWEI。

    (SAN)ZAIBENANZHONGDESHIYONG

    1、YUECHENGQUZHENGFUDEGONGGAOXINGWEIFUHESHUYUCHENGXUBIAOZHUNDELIWAIQINGKUANG,YINGSHIWEIZUIHOUJUEDING

    2018NIAN11YUE30RI,ZAIXIASHUFANGWUZHENGSHOUBUMENZUOCHU《AGONGSICHUPEIZHANFANGWUZHENGSHOUXIANGMUDIAOCHAJIEGUOGONGGAO》TONGRI,BZHENGFUZHIJIEZUOCHUDUIAGONGSIDE《ZHENGSHOUFANWEIGONGGAO》,GONGGAOZHONGMINGQUELEBEIZHENGSHOUFANGWUDEFANWEI,JIAGAILEBZHENGFUDEYINZHANG,BINGZAIAGONGSIWAIQIANGZHANGTIE、GONGGAO。BZHENGFUJIJINGJIANGFANGWUZHENGSHOUXIANGMUDEDIAOCHAJIEGUOYIZHIJIESONGDADEFANGSHIGAOZHILEAGONGSI,SUIRANSHIZAIDIAOCHAJIEGUOCHUJUDEDANGRIJIUZUOCHUFANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEIDEJUEDING,CHENGXUCHUXIANXIEWEIXIACI,DANKEYIRENDINGGAIGONGGAOXINGWEIWEIZUIHOUJUEDING。

    2、CONGSHIZHIBIAOZHUNFANGMIANKAN,GAIGONGGAOXINGWEIDUIAGONGSICHANSHENGLESHIJIBULIDEYINGXIANG

    BEISUXINGZHENGXINGWEIDEMINGCHENGSUIRAN“GONGGAO”,DANCONGQINEIRONGKAN,QIMINGQUELEAGONGSIDEFANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEI,GENJU《GUOYOUTUDISHANGFANGWUZHENGSHOUYUBUCHANGTIAOLI》DISHILIUTIAOGUIDING:“FANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEIQUEDINGHOU,BUDEZAIFANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEINEISHISHIXINJIAN、KUOJIAN、GAIJIANFANGWUHEGAIBIANFANGWUYONGTUDENGBUDANGZENGJIABUCHANGFEIYONGDEXINGWEI;WEIFANGUIDINGSHISHIDE,BUYUBUCHANG。FANGWUZHENGSHOUBUMENYINGDANGJIANGQIANKUANSUOLIESHIXIANGSHUMIANTONGZHIYOUGUANBUMENZANTINGBANLIXIANGGUANSHOUXU。ZANTINGBANLIXIANGGUANSHOUXUDESHUMIANTONGZHIYINGDANGZAIMINGZANTINGQIXIAN。ZANTINGQIXIANZUIZHANGBUDECHAOGUO1NIAN”。JIZHENGSHOUFANWEIDEQUEDINGXINGWEIKEDUIWAIZHIJIE、DANDUYINGXIANGBEIZHENGSHOURENDEQUANLIYIWU,RUBUDEKUOJIAN、GAIJIANFANGWUDENG,ZHEIYANGJIUDENGYUPAICHULEAGONGSIDUIQITUDIDESHIYONGQUAN,XIANRANGAIXINGWEIDUIAGONGSICHANSHENGLESHIJIBULIDEYINGXIANG,FUHEXINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGDESHIZHIBIAOZHUN。

    ZONGSHANG,BIZHERENWEI,BENANDEBEISUFANGWUZHENGSHOUFANWEIDEGONGGAOXINGWEI,GENJUCHENGSHUYUANZEDECHENGXUBIAOZHUNHESHIZHIBIAOZHUN,YINGSHUYUCHENGSHUDEXINGZHENGXINGWEI,JUYOUKESUXING。

    WU、JIEYU

    CHENGSHUYUANZEDEYUNYONGZHONG,ZAIDUIXINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGDECHENGXUBIAOZHUNHESHIZHIBIAOZHUNJINXINGSHIYONGSHIYIGEXIANGDUIFUZADEWENTI,YAOJIEHESHIJIQINGKUANGLINGHUOBAWO。ERCONGWOGUOMUQIANDEFALVGUIDINGLAIKAN,MEIYOUXINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUYUANZEDEMINGQUEGUIDING,JIYUSIFADEQIANYIXINGYU“NINGKEBUZUO,BUKEZUOCUO”SHISIWEIXIGUAN,JIUSHIDEDALIANGZHONGJIANXING、CHENGXUXINGXINGZHENGXINGWEIBEI“YIDAOQIE”BANDIPAICHUZAISIFASHENCHAFANWEIZHIWAI。SIFASHIJIANZHONG,YINGJIEHESHIJIQINGKUANGBAWO,YEYINGDANGRENSHIDAOZAIWEIHUXINGZHENGQUANYUSIFAQUANLIANGXINGXUNHUAN, QUEBAOGONGGONGLIYIDEYISHIXIANDEQIANTIXIA,YAOJINKENENGDIKUODADUIXIANGDUIRENQUANLIDEBAOHU。ZHEIJIUYIWEIZHE,ZAIJIYOUDESHIZHIBIAOZHUNHECHENGXUBIAOZHUNZHIJIAN, BUJINYAOFUHECHENGXUBIAOZHUN,GENGYAOTUCHUSHIZHIBIAOZHUNDEFENLIANG,CONGSHIFOUYINGXIANGXINGZHENGXIANGRENRENDEQUANLIYIWUJIAODUFENXISHIFOUFUHEXINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUYUANZE,SHIFOUJUYOUXINGZHENGXINGWEIKESUXING。

    CANKAOWENXIAN

    [1]ZHANGBENSHUN: XINGZHENGPANLISHIYEZHONGDEXINGZHENGFAYUANZEYANJIU—YILIANGBAOFUAN、LAIHENGANANWEILIPINGSHI[J],2007,(5): 96.

    [2][3][10]SHIYOUQI: ZAIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGQUELI“CHENGSHUYUANZE”DESIKAO[J],XINGZHENGFAXUEYANJIU, 2004NIANDI1QI,DI58YE.

    [4]CAILEWEI: XINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGDECHENGSHUYUANZEYANJIU[J].XINANZHENGFADAXUEXUEBAO,2005NIANDI5QI,DI63-65YE。

    [5][MEI]PANGDEZHU,SHENZONGLING、DONGSHIZHONGYI: TONGGUOFALVDESHEHUIKONGZHI——FALVDERENWU[M],BEIJING,SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN,1995NIANBAN,DI35YE.

    [6]YINGSONGNIAN: DANGDAIZHONGGUOXINGZHENGFA[M],ZHONGGUOFANGZHENGCHUBANSHE,2006BAN,DI87-88YE.

    [7]LUOHAOCAI,GANWEN: XINGZHENGFADE“PINGHENG”JI“PINGHENGLUN”FANCHOU[J],ZHONGGUOFAXUE.1996NIANDI4QI,DI48YE.

    [8]YANGHUQING: LUNXINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGPANDUANBIAOZHUN——CHONGTU、XUANZEJILIWAI[D],GUILIN: GUANGXISHIFANDAXUE,2018NIAN。

    [9]YANGHUQING: XINGZHENGXINGWEICHENGSHUXINGPANDUANBIAOZHUN[C],BEIJING:ZHONGGUOFAZHICHUBANSHE,2017NIAN,DI366YE.

    [11]WANGBEIBEI: MEIGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGFAZHONGCHENGSHUYUANZEDEYANJIU[D],ZHENGZHOU: ZHENGZHOUDAXUE,2012NIAN。

    [12]CAILEWEI: XINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGDECHENGSHUXINGYUANZEYANJIU,XINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGDECHENGSHUYUANZEYANJIU[J].XINANZHENGFADAXUEXUEBAO,2005(5): 63-65。

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